Energy Articles

Energy Articles
The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Pakistan
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: A Aqeel, MS Butt
Journal: Asia-Pacific Development Journal,Vol.8 (2), 2011--Pages 
Abstract: This paper investigates the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth and energy consumption and employment in Pakistan. By applying techniques of co-integration and Hsiao's version of Granger causality, the results infer that economic growth causes total energy consumption. Economic growth also leads to growth in petroleum consumption, while on the other hand, neither economic growth nor gas consumption affect each other. However, in the power sector it has been found that electricity consumption leads to economic growth without feedback. The implications of the study are that energy conservation policy regarding petroleum consumption would not lead to any side-effects on economic growth in Pakistan. However, an energy growth policy in the case of gas and electricity consumption should be adopted in such a way that it stimulates growth in the economy and thus expands employment opportunities
Keywords:  Pakistan, energy, electricity consumption
Citedy By: 414
Sustainable energy options for Pakistan
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: M. Asif
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.13 (4), 2009--Pages 903-909
Abstract: With the advent of the year 2008, Pakistan faces a gap of 4500MW between the demand and supply of electricity, registering a shortfall of 40%. The article provides an overview of the key dimensions of the crisis, ie growing gap between demand and supply, diminishing indigenous oil and gas reserves, rising energy cost and security concerns. It also explores hydropower, solar energy, biomass and wind power as sustainable energy options for the country. In has been found that the total estimated hydropower potential is more than 42 GW out of which only 6.5 GW has been tapped so far. In terms of available solar energy Pakistan is amongst the richest countries in the world, having an annual global irradiance value of 1900–2200 kWh/m2 . Despite that fact that the biomass plays an important role in the primary energy mix by contributing to 36% of the total supplies, it has not managed to break into the commercial energy market. Wind power, also been identified as a potential source of energy, is yet to take off
Keywords: potential source of energy, primary energy mix
Citedy By: 128
Energy consumption, real income and temporal causality: results from a multi-country study based on cointegration and error-correction modelling techniques
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: AMM Masih
Journal: Journal: Energy Economics,Vol.18 (3), 1996--Pages 165-183
Abstract: Unlike previous studies on the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, this paper illustrates how the finding of cointegration (i.e. long-term equilibrium relationship) between these variables, may be used in testing Granger causality. Based on the most recent Johansen's multivariate cointegration tests preceded by various unit root or non-stationarity tests, we test for cointegration between total energy consumption and real income of six Asian economies: India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and the Philippines. Non-rejection of cointegration between variables rules out Granger non-causality and imples at least one way of Granger-causality, either unidirectional or bidirectionial. Secondly, by using a dynamic vector error-correction model, we then analyse the direction of Granger-causation and hence the within-sample Granger-exogeneity or endogeneity of each of the variables. Thirdly, the relative strength of the causality is gauged (through the dynamic variance decomposition technique) by decomposing the total impact of an unanticipated shock to each of the variables beyond the sample period, into proportions attributable to shocks in the other variables including its own, in the bivariate system. Results based on these tools of methodology indicate that while all pair-wise relationships shared common univariate integrational properties, only relationships for three countries (India, Pakistan and Indonesia) were cointegrated. For these countries, temporal causality results were mixed with unidirectional causality from energy to income for India, exactly the reverse for Indonesia, and mutual causality for Pakistan. The VDCs were not inconsistent with these results and provided us with an additional insight as to the relatively more *Corresponding author. Phone: (616) 268 8091; Fax: (616) 268 8450; Telex: ADFADM AA 62030; E-Mail: a-masih@adfa.oz.au 0140-9883/96/$15.00 © 1996 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved PIIS0140-9883(96) 00009-6 166 A.M.M. Masih, 1~ Masih / Energy Economics 18 (1996) 165-183 dominant direction of causation in Pakistan. Simple bivariate vector-autoregressive models for the three non-cointegrated systems did not indicate any direction of causality, significantly in either direction.
Keywords: energy consumption, economic growth, pair-wise relationships
Citedy By: 805
Energy consumption and GDP in developing countries: a cointegrated panel analysis
[PDF] 
Author: CC Lee
Journal: Energy economics,Vol.27 (3), 2005--Pages 415-425
Abstract: In this paper we re-investigate the co-movement and the causality relationship between energy consumption and GDP in 18 developing countries, using data for the period 1975 to 2001. Recently developed tests for the panel unit root, heterogeneous panel cointegration, and panel-based error correction models are employed. The empirical results provide clear support of a long-run cointegration relationship after allowing for the heterogeneous country effect. The long-run relationship is estimated using a full-modified OLS. The evidence shows that long-run and short-run causalities run from energy consumption to GDP, but not vice versa. This result indicates that energy conservation may harm economic growth in developing countries regardless of being transitory or permanent.
Keywords: Energy consumption; Income; Panel cointegration; Causality
Citedy By: 784
Biogas, renewable energy resource for Pakistan
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: SS Amjid, MQ Bilal, MS Nazir, A Hussain
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.15 (6), 2011--Pages 2833-2837
Abstract: Developing countries are in critical energy crisis. Pakistan spends almost 7 billion US$ on import of fossil fuels annually to congregate its energy needs. The renewable and sustainable energy resources are best substitute to the conventional fuels and energy sources. Pakistan takes the opportunity to have almost 159 million animals producing almost 652 million kg of manure daily from cattle and buffalo only; that can be used to generate 16.3 million m3 biogas per day and 21 million tons of bio fertilizer per year. That compensate approximately 20% of nitrogen and 66% of phosphorus required in the crop fields. Apart from this sugarcane industry has got the potential to generate 3000 MW energy. Domestic biogas plants were started in Pakistan in 1959 and at present there is significant number of such working units. Biogas Support Program (BSP) was started in 2000 by Pakistani government. So far it has achieved the target of installing 1200 biogas units, whereas another 10,000 units are expected to be set up in coming 05 years that will harvest almost 27% of country’s biogas potential. A biogas unit of 10 m3 size is anticipated to save almost 92,062 PKR per year on account of conventional fuels spent otherwise. Women’s opportunity cost, with introduction of biogas units reportedly increased; subsequently impacting positively on household income. Biogas energy generation systems are in demand and their number is increasing steadily. They are low-cost and can be run with very small budget. Biogas energy corridor can work as a good substitute for nearly 70% of country’s population residing in rural areas. Installation of plants to bottle the biogas can be additional opportunity. The need of a national policy is imperative to bring this technology at farmer’s doorstep.
Keywords: Biogas, Biogas Support Program, bio fertilizer
Citedy By: 78
Renewable energy technologies in Pakistan: prospects and challenges
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: MA Chaudhry, R Raza, SA Hayat
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.13 (6-7), 2009--Pages 1657-1662
Abstract: Pakistan is an energy-deficient country. This paper accentuates the importance and challenges of new era technologies. The renewable energy sources like wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy, biomass energy and fuel cell technology can be used to overcome energy shortage in Pakistan. Renewable energy sources and technologies have the potential to provide solutions to the long-standing energy problems being faced by the developing countries. The expansion of existing energy resources and exploration of new sources is an important exercise to be considered in order to sustain their development initiatives.
Keywords: Renewable energy; Wind; Solar; Geothermal; Hydro-power; Biomass; Fuel cell
Citedy By: 72
Energy consumption and GDP in developing countries: a cointegrated panel analysis
[PDF] 
Author: CC Lee
Journal: Energy economics,Vol.27 (3), 2005--Pages 415-427
Abstract: In this paper we re-investigate the co-movement and the causality relationship between energy consumption and GDP in 18 developing countries, using data for the period 1975 to 2001. Recently developed tests for the panel unit root, heterogeneous panel cointegration, and panel-based error correction models are employed. The empirical results provide clear support of a long-run cointegration relationship after allowing for the heterogeneous country effect. The long-run relationship is estimated using a full-modified OLS. The evidence shows that long-run and short-run causalities run from energy consumption to GDP, but not vice versa. This result indicates that energy conservation may harm economic growth in developing countries regardless of being transitory or permanent.
Keywords: Energy consumption; Income; Panel cointegration; Causality
Citedy By: 784
An overview of biomass energy utilization in Pakistan
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: UK Mirza, N Ahmad, T Majeed
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.12 (7), 2008--Pages 1988-1996
Abstract: Energy plays a pivotal role in socio-economic development by raising standard of living. Biomass has been used as an energy source for thousands of years by the humankind. Traditional fuels like firewood, dung and crop residues currently contribute a major share in meeting the everyday energy requirements of rural and low-income urban households in Pakistan. An average biomass using household consumes 2325 kg of firewood or 1480 kg of dung or 1160 kg of crop residues per annum. There are good prospects for using biogas energy in rural areas through a network of community biogas plants. Development of fuel-efficient cook stoves is a modest effort to help conserve biomass energy at domestic level. PCRET has so far installed 60,000 energy-conserving, improved cooking stoves all over the country, which are 12–28% efficient. E-10 gasoline pilot project and research on biodiesel production are underway. Sugarcane bagasse can potentially be used to generate 2000 MW of electric power. Attention is now being given to the use of municipal and industrial waste for power generation. The government is financing many projects related to biomass energy development in the country, but still lot more efforts are needed for harnessing full potential and taking maximum benefit out of this important renewable energy resource. r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Energy; Biomass; Biogas; Bagasse; Pakistan
Keywords: Energy; Biomass; Biogas; Bagasse; Pakistan
Citedy By: 120
Wind energy development in Pakista
[PDF] 
Author: UK Mirza, N Ahmad, T Majeed, K Harijan
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.11 (9), 2007--Pages 2179-2190
Abstract: Pakistan has a very limited fossil fuel resource base. The poor economy does not allow the import of fossil fuels, particularly oil, on a large scale. Moreover, too much reliance on imported oil is critical from energy security point of view. A large fraction of the population lives in remote areas and is still waiting to be connected to the national electricity grid. To help these remote communities in particular, and to overcome energy shortages in general, Pakistan needs to develop its indigenous energy resources like hydropower, solar and wind. More than 1000 km long coastline in south and some places in northern mountainous areas provide an excellent resource of wind energy. This vast potential can be exploited to produce electricity on both community and wind farm scales. Applications other than electricity production, such as water pumping, also have vast applications. This article discusses the past, the present and the future of wind energy use in Pakistan. The efforts for the utilization of wind energy in the country are presented as well, along with barriers to its development. It is concluded that the potential exists, but significant efforts are needed to effectively make use of this cheap renewable energy source.
Keywords: Wind energy; Pakistan
Citedy By: 71
Energy and renewable energy scenario of Pakistan
[PDF] amazonaws.com
Author: MA Sheikh
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.14 (1), 2010--Pages 354-363
Abstract: This paper presents a review about conventional and renewable energy scenario of the county in quantitative terms of supply, generation and exploitation of available resources. In this energy scenario, the renewable energy share is in the range of a fraction of a percentage compared to total conventional energy supplies, so depicting it as a sector of least significance for government. Main emphasis in this paper has been given on presentation of data about renewable energy (RE) installations in the country, on-going activities, development projects, RE planning and achievements of public sector RE institutions and organizations. At the end some suggestions are given for effective planning and exploitation of RE resources and use of technologies. These suggestions are not only useful for Pakistan but also are equally important for the third world countries to enhance appreciably RE contribution in their total energy supplies of their country.
Keywords: Energy; Renewable; Energy planning/status
Citedy By: 117
Greener energy: Issues and challenges for Pakistan-Biomass energy prospective
[PDF] 
Author: AW Bhutto, AA Bazmi, G Zahedi
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy ,Vol.14 (1), 2010--Pages 354–363
Abstract: : Diversification of fuel sources is imperative to address the energy security, climate change, and sustainable development issues; therefore, it is essential to address the energy crisis through the extensive utilization of abundant renewable energy resources, such as biomass energy, solar energy, wind energy and geothermal energy. Improving energy services for poor households in developing countries remains one of the most pressing challenges facing the development community. Earlier studies suggest in South Asia the households are likely to follow the energy ladder comprising fuels like dung, crop residue, firewood, kerosene, gobar gas, LPG, and electricity for cooking purposes. Evidence suggests that while it is possible to observe such transition in urban and semi-urban areas, the change is very slow in rural areas. In rural Pakistan,the access to commercial energy resources is limited,the majority ofthe households still heavily rely on traditional methods of using wood, animal waste and crop waste for domestic fuel needs. Efficiencies of use are very low and most of the potential is wasted because of non-scientific conventional technologies. Consequently there is an obligatory need to develop modern bio-energy technologies since renewable resources may serve to supplement the long-term energy needs of Pakistan to a significant level. Though the bio-resource base of Pakistan is substantial, its contribution to useful energy is low. In this paper we called attention to issues and challenges in biomass utilization for energy in Pakistan in context of sustainable development. This paper has identified areas in Pakistan where there is considerable scope to modernize biomass energy production delivery systems to provide varied energy carriers such as electricity, industrial and domestic fuel and gases. Barriers are examined over the whole biomass energy spectrum and policy issue and institutional roles and responsibilities are discussed.
Keywords: Greener energy, Utilization for energy in Pakistan
Citedy By: 84
Is energy consumption effective to spur economic growth in Pakistan? New evidence from bounds test to level relationships and Granger causality tests
[PDF] https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/39734/1/MPRA_paper_39734.pdf
Author: M Shahbaz, M Zeshan, T Afza
Journal: Economic Modelling,Vol.29 (6), 2012--Pages 2310–2319
Abstract: The present study investigates the relationship between energy (renewable and nonrenewable) consumption and economic growth using Cobb-Douglas production function in case of Pakistan over the period of 1972-2011. We have used ARDL bounds testing and Gregory and Hansen (1990) structural break cointegration approaches for long run while stationarity properties of the variables are tested applying Clemente-Montanes-Reyes (1998) structural break unit root test. Our results confirm co-integration between renewable energy consumption, nonrenewable energy consumption, economic growth, capital and labor in case of Pakistan. The findings show that both renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption add to economic growth. Capital and labour are also important determinants of economic growth. The VECM granger causality analysis validates the existence of feedback hypotheses between renewable energy consumption and economic growth, nonrenewable energy consumption and economic growth, economic growth and capital. Keywords: Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, Pakistan
Keywords: nonrenewable energy,economic growth, VECM granger causality analysis
Citedy By: 118
Selection of renewable energy technologies for a developing county: a case of Pakistan
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: M Amer, TU Daim
Journal: Energy for Sustainable Development,Vol.15 (4), 2011--Pages 420–435
Abstract: In this paper some renewable energy options for electricity generation for Pakistan are explored from multiple perspectives comprising technical, economical, social, environmental and political aspects. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been used for the first time for the energy sector of Pakistan. An AHP model has been presented for the selection and prioritization of various renewable energy technologies for electricity generation. After accessing potential of the country for generating electricity from renewable resources, reviewing relevant scholarly literature and discussion with experts, an appropriate decision model has been formulated consisting of goal, criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives. Wind energy, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal and biomass energy options are used as the alternatives in the decision model. Besides ranking and prioritizing of these technologies, results of the proposed decision model can also be used for the development of long-term renewable energy policy and energy roadmap for the country. The findings of this research might also be highly relevant to other developing countries.
Keywords: Decision making; Analytic hierarchy process; Renewable energy; Electricity; Pakistan
Citedy By: 111
Energy and economic growth in Pakistan
[PDF] pide.org.pk
Author: R Siddiqui
Journal: The Pakistan Development Review,Vol.43 (2), 2004--Pages 175-200
Abstract: Recent rise in energy prices, shrinking existing resources, and the search for alternative sources of energy and energy conservation technologies have brought into focus the issue of causality between energy use and economic growth. The results of this study show that energy expansion is expected to lead to higher growth and its shortage may retard the growth process. The impact of all sources of energy on economic growth is not the same. The impact of electricity and petroleum products as well as that of electricity only is high and statistically significant. However, the reverse causality is critical for the petroleum products
Keywords: Economic growth models, Economic growth rate, energy consumption, Pakistan
Citedy By: 95
Renewable energy for managing energy crisis in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: K Harijan, MA Uqaili, M Memon
Journal:  International Multi Topic Conference,Vol. (), 2008--Pages 449-455
Abstract: Only 55% of the Pakistan’s population has access to electricity and per capita supply is about 520 kWh. At present, the people are facing severe load shedding/blackout problems due to shortage of about 3 GW power supply. Gas and oil have 65% share in conventional electricity generation. Indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country’s economy. Though there is huge coal potential in the country but has not been utilized due to various reasons. This shows that Pakistan must develop renewables to manage the energy crises. This paper analyses the prospects of renewable for managing the energy crises in the country. The study concludes that there is substantial potential of renewables in the country for managing the present energy crises as well as meeting the future energy needs.
Keywords: Energy crisis Electricity demand Renewable energy Environment friendly Pakistan
Citedy By: 33
Renewable energy in Pakistan: status and trends
[PDF] atrc.net.pk
Author: NA Khan, IA Mirza, MS Khalil
Journal: Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB),Vol. (), 2014--Pages 
Abstract: Energy consumption in Pakistan is mainly dependent on conventional fuels that are usually imported and each increase in the oil prices in the international market results in a proportional increase in fuel prices in the country. This situation along with the concerns over the rapid depletion of country’s natural gas reserves has raised very serious concerns on availability of energy and its security. As of 2003 there was no use of renewable energy in the country and the Government having realized that created an autonomous Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB). This Board has been created to coordinate, facilitate and promote Alternative / Renewable Energy technologies so as to achieve 5% share of power generation through renewable energies by year 2030. This article provides an overview of the potential of various renewable energy sources , various developments project undertaken by the Government of Pakistan and its mid term and long term plan.
Keywords: Sustainability, Renewable Energy, Solar Energy, Wind Power, Photovoltaic
Citedy By: 5
Specific concerns of Pakistan in the context of energy security issues and geopolitics of the region
[PDF] 
Author: MH Sahir, AH Qureshi
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol.35 (4), 2007--Pages 2031–2037
Abstract: The global and regional energy security in future is not likely to be threatened as much by the shortage of resources as it is likely to be endangered by the disruption of supplies and availability of tradable resources: threatened by growing terrorism and geopolitical conflicts. Pakistan's geo-strategic position and its importance act to both influence and undermine its energy security issues. It has the potential to provide a corridor for regional energy trade but it is ranked among the top nations exposed to potential threat of terrorist attacks because of the consequences of its role in the major geopolitical expeditions of the recent past. The paper examines the concerns of Pakistan emanating from the regional and global geopolitics of energy from Pakistan's viewpoint.
Keywords: Energy security; Terrorism; Pakistan
Citedy By: 54
Pioneering new indoor temperature standards: the Pakistan project
[PDF] 
Author: F Nicol, S Roaf
Journal: Energy and Buildings,Vol.23 (3), 1996--Pages 169-174
Abstract: Field surveys of thermal comfort have been conducted summer and winter in the five climatic regions of Pakistan to help the Pakistani Government to replace existing inappropriate indoor temperature standards. Results are presented which show large variations in desired indoor temperature with climate and season. The reasons for the differences are explored and an indication of the way in which responsive indoor temperature standards, which encourage the use of passive architecture and save energy in air-conditioned buildings, might be framed is presented
Keywords: Thermal comfort, Field survey, Pakistan, Climate, Energy
Citedy By: 138
Identifying and addressing barriers to renewable energy development In Pakistan
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: UK Mirza, N Ahmad, K Harijan, T Majeed
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy ,Vol.13 (4), 2009--Pages 927–931
Abstract: To ensure a sustainable energy future for Pakistan, it is necessary that the energy sector be accorded a high priority. Pakistan remains predominantly reliant on fossil fuels as its primary source of energy. Efforts to reduce reliance on fossil fuels through increasing the share of renewable energy in the energy supply systems have met with little success so far. The barriers to development of renewable energy can be broadly classified as policy and regulatory barriers, institutional barriers, fiscal and financial barriers, market-related barriers, technological barriers and information and social barriers. In this article, an effort has been made to identify the barriers that limit the use of renewable energy technologies in general and with specific reference to Pakistan, and outline the measures to address these barriers.
Keywords: Renewable energy; Barriers; Pakistan
Citedy By: 74
Assessment of new and renewable energy resources potential and identification of barriers to their significant utilization in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: MH Sahir, AH Qureshi
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.12 (1), 2008--Pages 290–298
Abstract: The paper presents a review of the assessed potential of the renewable resources and practical limitations to their significant use in the context of present scenarios and future projections of the national energy mix for Pakistan. Solar, wind, biomass and micro hydel resources are likely to play an important role in future; however these should be seen as supplementary resources and not as alternatives. IEP approach and consistent policy instruments are needed for sustainable development of RETs.
Keywords: Renewable-potential; Solar-energy; Wind-power; Limitations; Pakistan
Citedy By: 64
Status and outlook of solar energy use in Pakistan
[PDF] tawanai.com
Author: UK Mirza, MM Maroto-Valer, N Ahmad
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.7 (6), 2003--Pages 501–514
Abstract: : Pakistan is an energy deficient country, where a large fraction of the population still does not have access to modern day energy services such as electricity. This is due to very limited fossil fuel resources and poor economy, which restrains the import of fossil fuels on a large scale. To overcome energy shortage, Pakistan needs to develop its indigenous energy resources like hydropower, solar and wind. Pakistan lies in an area of one of the highest solar insolation in the world. This vast potential can be exploited to produce electricity, which could be provided to off-grid communities in the northern hilly areas and the southern and western deserts. Applications other than electricity production such as solar water heaters and solar cookers also have vast applications. All this will help in both reducing the import of fossil fuels and dependency of people on fuel wood, which in turn will provide some respite for the dwindling forest reserves of Pakistan. Accordingly, the status and outlook of solar energy use in Pakistan is discussed in this paper. In addition, the role of R&D organizations in the promotion of solar energy technologies in Pakistan is also presented including a description of some proposed projects. It is concluded that the current infrastructure has not been able to advance the status of solar energy of Pakistan. Significant efforts are needed to effectively utilize this cheap renewable energy source.
Keywords: energy services electricity northern hilly areas
Citedy By: 64
Energy demand in Pakistan: a disaggregate analysis
[PDF] uni-muenchen.de
Author: MA Khan, U Ahmad
Journal: The Pakistan Development Review,Vol.47 (4), 2009--Pages 437-455
Abstract: This study examines the demand for energy at disaggregate level (gas, electricity and coal) for Pakistan over the period 1972-2007. Over main results suggest that electricity and coal consumption responds positively to changes in real income per capita and negatively to changes in domestic price level. The gas consumption responds negatively to real income and price changes in the short-run, however, in the long-run real income exerts positive effect on gas consumption, while domestic price remains insignificant. Furthermore, in the short-run the average elasticities of price and real income for gas consumption (in absolute terms) are greater than that of electricity and coal consumption. The differences in elasticities of each component of energy have significant policy implications for income and revenue generation
Keywords: domestic price, energy at disaggregate level, gas, electricity and coal
Citedy By: 64
Energy consumption and economic growth in Asian economies: a more comprehensive analysis using panel data
[PDF] 
Author: CC Lee, CP Chang
Journal: Resource and energy Economics,Vol.30 (1), 2008--Pages 50–65
Abstract: This paper applies the most recently developed panel unit root, heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel-based error correction models to re-investigate co-movement and the causal relationship between energy consumption and real GDP within a multivariate framework that includes capital stock and labor input for 16 Asian countries during the 1971–2002 period. It employs the production side model (aggregate production function). The empirical results fully support a positive long-run cointegrated relationship between real GDP and energy consumption when the heterogeneous country effect is taken into account. It is found that although economic growth and energy consumption lack short-run causality, there is long-run unidirectional causality running from energy consumption to economic growth. This means that reducing energy consumption does not adversely affect GDP in the short-run but would in the long-run; thus, these countries should adopt a more vigorous energy policy. Furthermore, we broaden the investigation by dividing the sample countries into two cross-regional groups, namely the APEC and ASEAN groups, and even more important results and implications emerge
Keywords: Energy consumption; GDP; Asian economies; Panel co-integration; Panel causality
Citedy By: 495
Sustainable development in Pakistan in the context of energy consumption demand and environmental degradation
[PDF] 
Author: S Alam, A Fatima, MS Butt
Journal: Journal of Asian Economics,Vol.18 (5), 2007--Pages 825–837
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of population growth, economic growth, energy intensity (EI) growth and urbanization growth on environmental degradation in Pakistan. The paper will investigate simultaneously the effect of population growth, urbanization, energy consumption and environmental degradation on the sustainable economic growth as well. To ensure the sustainable development of the economy environmental degradation should not increase with time but be reduced or at least remain constant. If it increases, we will move further away for sustainability, while if it decreases, we will move closer towards it. The results indicate that 1% increase in GDP growth leads to 0.84% increase in growth rate of carbon dioxide emissions, and an increase of 1% in the energy intensity growth rate causes almost 0.24% increases in growth rate of CO2 emissions. As far as results of co-integrating vector normalized on GDP growth is concerned, the coefficients of EI growth and CO2 emissions growth are found to be affecting the level of development significantly and positively by 0.3% and 1.2%, respectively. This indicates that in Pakistan process of economic development is dependent on the level of energy use and the resultant of this energy use, CO2 emissions caused economic growth significantly and positively. In addition to the rapid urbanization and increased population growth affect positively to environmental degradation while negatively and significantly to the economic development in the long run.
Keywords: Economic growth; Environmental degradation; CO2 emission; Energy intensity; Urbanization
Citedy By: 77
Thermal springs of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: MA Bakr
Journal: Pakistan Geol. Surv. Rec,Vol.16 (), 1996--Pages 3
Abstract: 3 Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; PAKISTAN; HOT SPRINGS; GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES; THERMAL WATERS; ASIA; RESOURCES; THERMAL SPRINGS 150202* -- Geology & Hydrology of Geothermal
Keywords: ENERGY; PAKISTAN GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES
Citedy By: 14
How to do structural validity of a system dynamics type simulation model: the case of an energy policy model
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: H Qudrat-Ullah, BS Seong
Journal: Energy PolicyVolume,Vol.13 (), --Pages 3
Abstract: System dynamics based simulation models are becoming increasingly popular in the analysis of important energy policy issues including global warming, deregulation, conservation and efficiency. The usefulness of these models is predicated on their ability to link observable patterns of behavior of a system to micro-level structures. This paper argues that the structural validity of the simulation model—right behavior for the right reasons—is a stringent measure to build confidence in a simulation model regardless of how well the model passes behavior validity tests. That leads to an outline of formal structural validity procedures available but less explored in system dynamics modeling ‘repertoire’. An illustration of a set of six tests for structural validity of a system dynamics model for energy policy analysis follows. Then using Theil inequality statistics, the behavior validity of the model is also tested. Finally, some conclusions on the increased appeal for simulation models for energy policy analysis and design are presented.
Keywords: Energy; Pakistan; Structural validity
Citedy By: 120
Alternate energy resources for pakistan: sustainable solutions for fulfilling energy requirements
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: M Shakir, IU Haq, MA Khan, SA Malik
Journal: World Applied Sciences Journal ,Vol.31 (5), 2014--Pages 718-723
Abstract: Pakistan has been facing the problem of energy shortages and the problem has deteriorated under successive governments. A burning need of the hour is to devise proper strategy for utilizing the available resources and making Pakistan self-sufficient in energy requirements. Different segments of the society have discussed on the feasible issues and convergence of ideas to work on a joint mechanism with active involvement and support from the government along with guidance from scientists and academia is the way forward to derive a long term sustainable solution. Alternate energy resources have to be introduced at domestic and commercial level thus promoting viable energy efficient solution across the country. Roughly the requirement is around 6000 MW which has to be added to the national grid. With the blatant needs of energy, Pakistan has the right to exercise the use of nuclear energy for meeting its demands and keeping the civil nuclear agreements going on in the world. Many energy sources are environmental friendly, they provide an alternate safe source helping to keep pollution within certain levels as required by the world standards. Coastal areas of Pakistan are a huge resource for utilizing wind energy potential to its maximal level. Pakistan has the potential to generate 3 million megawatts electricity through solar energy. The need of the hour is to build small scale hydro dams in Pakistan since other power generation sources are difficult to be implemented in remote areas. We would explore the available resources for maximal benefit and utilization.
Keywords: Alternate Energy Geothermal Hydal Nuclear Renewable Energy Solar Wind
Citedy By: 4
Power generation in Pakistan: past trends, current status and future projections
[PDF] 
Author: MA Uqaili, M Mirani, K Harijan
Journal: Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology,Vol.23 (3), 2004--Pages 207-216
Abstract: Energy is an essential ingredient of socio-economic development and economic growth. Electricity is the most versatile form of energy and is the key to the modern world. Pakistan is an energy deficient country. The total power generation capacity in the country is of the order of 17.8 GW. About half of the country's population has no access to electricity and per capita electricity supply is only 500 kWh. The conventional electricity generation includes 68.3% thermal (oil, gas and coal), 29.5% hydel and 2.3% nuclear. The electricity generation increased by 8% per year during the last four decades and future demand has been projected to grow at 7-11 % per annum. The hydel electricity generation installed capacity was 240 MW in 1960 with 70% share in total installed capacity mix. It has substantially increased to 5,041 MW in 2003 in absolute terms; however the share in total installed capacity decreased to 28.34%. This paper presents the past trends, current status and future projections for hydel power generation in Pakistan. The study concludes that though the installed capacity of hydel power generation increased at an average rate of about 48% per annum from 1960 to 2003, but its share in total electricity generation mix decreased continuously in the last four decades and projected that its share will also decreases in the future too. The government should take concrete efforts for growth in hydel electricity generation especially small hydro power, to meet increasing power demand, to increase economic independence, to reduce fossil fuel consumption and to protect the environment from pollution resulting from increasing thermal power generation
Keywords: Socio-economic, development economic growth, generation capacity, protect the environment
Citedy By: 4
Renewable energy resource potential in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: MA Sheikh
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.13 (9), 2009--Pages 2696–2702
Abstract: Pakistan energy situation is seriously troubling today due to lack of careful planning and implementation of its energy policies. To avoid the worse situation in the years ahead, the country will have to exploit its huge natural renewable resource. In this paper a review is being presented about renewable energy resource potential available in the country to be exploited for useful and consistent energy supplies. On average solar global insolation 5–7 kWh/m2/day, wind speed 5–7.5 m/s, Biogas 14 million m3/day, microhydel more than 600 MW (for small units) with persistency factor of more than 80% over a year exist in the country. Solar and wind maps are presented along with identification of hot spring sites as resource of geothermal energy. The research results presented in this paper are not only useful for government policy makers, executing agencies but also for private sector national and international agencies and stake holders who want to invest in Pakistan for renewable energy projects or business.
Keywords: Renewable energy; Resource data; Solar; Wind; Microhydel; Bio-energy; Geothermal energy
Citedy By: 49
A computable general equilibrium model of energy, economy and equity interactions in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: F Naqvi
Journal: Energy Economics,Vol.4 (1), 1998--Pages 347–373
Abstract: This article introduces a computable general equilibrium model of the Pakistan economy. Some major extensions to a standard neoclassical model have been made to capture the interlinkages between economy, energy and equity. The model has been designed mainly to carry out policy oriented short-term studies especially for the energy sector. An illustrative application of the model shows its capability to provide detailed information which are useful in analysis of a policy issue
Keywords: Energy; General equilibrium
Citedy By: 49
Management of natural gas resources and search for alternative renewable energy resources: A case study of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: SN Malik, OR Sukhera
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.16 (2), 2012--Pages 1282–1290
Abstract: Energy usage in Pakistan has increased rapidly in past few years due to increase in economic growth. Inadequate and inconsistent supply of energy has created pressure on the industrial and commercial sectors of Pakistan and has also affected environment. Demand has already exceeded supply and load shedding has become common phenomenon. Due to excessive consumption of energy resources it would become difficult to meet future energy demands. This necessitates proper management of existing and exploration of new energy resources. Energy resource management is highly dependent on the supply and demand pattern. This paper highlights the future demands, production and supply of energy produced from natural gas based on economic and environmental constraints in Pakistan with special emphasis on management of natural gas. An attempt has been made by proposing a suitable course of action to meet the rising gas demand. A mechanism has been proposed to evaluate Pakistan's future gas demand through quantitative analysis of base, worst and best/chosen option. CO2 emission for all cases has also been evaluated. The potential, constraints and possible solutions to develop alternative renewable energy resources in the country have also been discussed. This work will be fruitful for the decision makers responsible for energy planning of the country. This work is not only helpful for Pakistan but is equally important to other developing countries to manage their energy resources
Keywords: Energy planning; Renewable energy resources
Citedy By: 21
A clean and permanent energy infrastructure for Pakistan: solar-hydrogen energy system
[PDF] 
Author: N Lutfi, TN Veziroǧlu
Journal: International journal of hydrogen energy,Vol.16 (3), 1991--Pages 169-200
Abstract: A solar-hydrogen energy system has been proposed for Pakistan as the best replacement for the present fossil fuel based energy system. Hydrogen is to be produced via a photovoltaic-electrolysis system, utilizing the available non-agricultural sunny terrain in Baluchistan region. There will be a desalination plant for sea water desalination. The area under the photovoltaic panels with the availability of water would provide suitable environment for growing some cash crops. This would change the vast useless desert land into green productive farms. In order to show the quantitative benefits of the proposed system, future trends of important energy and economical parameters have been studied with and without hydrogen introduction. These included population, energy demand (fossil + hydrogen), energy production (fossil + hydrogen), gross national product, fossil energy imports, world energy prices, environmental savings due to hydrogen introduction, savings due to the higher utilization efficiency of hydrogen, by-product credit, agricultural income, income from hydrogen sale, photovoltaic cell area, total land area, water desalination plant capacity, capital investment, operating and maintenance cost, total income from the system environmental impact and quality of life. The results indicate that adopting the solar-hydrogen energy system would eliminate the import dependency on fossil fuels, increase gross product per capita, reduce pollution, improve quality of life, and establish a permanent and clean energy system. The total annual expenditure for the proposed system is quite small compared to the total income expected. The availability of water, the cast crop production, electricity and hydrogen would result in rapid development of Baluchistan, the largest province of Pakistan
Keywords: Solar-hydrogen energy, Pakistan, clean energy
Citedy By: 48
Greener energy: issues and challenges for Pakistan—solar energy prospective
[PDF] psu.edu
Author: AW Bhutto, AA Bazmi, G Zahedi
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy ,Vol.16 (5), 2012--Pages 2762–2780
Abstract: Energy plays a pivotal role in socio-economic development by raising standard of living. It is becoming gradually accepted that current energy systems, networks encompassing every thing from primary energy sources to final energy services, are becoming unsustainable. Development of conventional forms of energy for meeting the growing energy needs of society at a reasonable cost is the responsibility of the Governments. In recent years, public and political sensitivities to environmental issues and energy security have led to the promotion of renewable energy resources. Diversification of fuel sources is imperative to address these issues; and limited fossil resources and environmental problems associated with them have emphasized the need for new sustainable energy supply options that use renewable energies. Development and promotion of new non-conventional, alternate and renewable sources of energy such as solar, wind and bio-energy, etc. are now getting sustained attention. Solar power is one of the hottest areas in energy investment right now, but there is much debate about the future of solar technology and solar energy markets. This investigates the progress and challenges for solar power in Pakistan according to the overall concept of sustainable development, and identifies the region wise potential of solar power in Pakistan and its current status. Barriers are examined over the whole solar energy spectrum and policy issues and institutional roles and responsibilities are discussed
Keywords: Green energy; Solar energy; Sustainable development; Pakistan
Citedy By: 48
The dynamics of electricity consumption and economic growth: A revisit study of their causality in Pakistan
[PDF] esearchgate.net
Author: M Shahbaz, HH Lean
Journal: Energy,Vol.39 (1), 2012--Pages 146–153
Abstract: This study revisits the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Pakistan by controlling and investigating the effects of two major production factors – capital and labor. The empirical evidence confirms the cointegration among the variables and indicates that electricity consumption has a positive effect on economic growth. Moreover, bi-directional Granger causality between electricity consumption and economic growth has been found. The finding suggests that adoption of electricity conservation policies to conserve energy resources may unwittingly decline economic growth and the lower growth rate will in turn further decrease the demand for electricity. Therefore, government contemplating such conservationist policies should instead explore and develop alternate sources of energy as a strategy rather than just increasing electricity production per se in order to meet the rising demand for electricity in their quest towards sustaining development in the country
Keywords: Electricity consumption; Economic growth; Granger causality
Citedy By: 125
An evaluation of wind energy potential at Kati Bandar, Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: I Ullah, AJ Chipperfield
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.14 (2), 2010--Pages 856–861
Abstract: As a developing nation of energy-starved people, Pakistan urgently needs new sources of affordable, clean energy. Wind energy is potentially attractive because of its low environmental impact and sustainability. This work aims to investigate the wind power production potential of sites in south-eastern Pakistan. Wind speed data measured over a one-year period at a typical site on the south-east coast of Pakistan are presented. Frequency distributions of wind speed and wind power densities at three heights, seasonal variations of speed, and estimates of power likely to be produced by commercial turbines are included. The site investigated is found to be a class 4 wind power site with annual average wind speed of 7.16 m/s and power density of 414 W/m2 at 50 m height. The site is, therefore, likely to be suitable for wind farms as well as small, stand-alone systems
Keywords: Wind energy; Wind resource evaluation; Pakistan wind sites
Citedy By: 36
The energy supply situation in the rural sector of Pakistan and the potential of renewable energy technologies
[PDF] 
Author: MA Ghaffar - Renewable
Journal: Renewable energy,Vol.16 (8), 1995--Pages 941-976
Abstract: Renewable energy, Volume 6, Issue 8, November 1995, Pages 941-976- Elsevier Abstract: Pakistan has few energy resources and the country is heavily dependent on the import of fossil fuel. More than 20% of foreign exchange earnings is spent on oil imports every year. The urban population has access to commercial energy sources but the rural population consumes wood, animal and crop waste for its domestic energy needs. Interest in renewables as part of national energy supplies is growing. Among renewables, biogas and solar energy receive more attention because of their good resource potential. Renewables, especially biogas and solar energy, could supply energy for various applications and thus raise the living standards of the people
Keywords: energy resources, national energy supplies, biogas
Citedy By: 28
Environmental Kuznets curve and the role of energy consumption in Pakistan
[PDF] mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
Author: S Muhammad, HH Lean, SS Muhammad
Journal: Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA Paper No. 34929),Vol. (), 2011--Pages 
Abstract: The paper is an effort to fill the gap in the energy literature with a comprehensive country study for Pakistan. We investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth and trade openness for Pakistan over the period of 1971- 2009. Bounds test for cointegration and Granger causality test are employed for the empirical analysis. The result suggests that there exists long-run relationship among the variables and the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is supported. The significant existence of EKC shows the country's effort to condense CO2 emissions and indicates a reasonable achievement of controlling environmental degradation in Pakistan. Furthermore, we find oneway causal relationship running from income to CO2 emissions. Energy consumption increases CO2 emissions both in the short and long runs. Trade openness reduces CO2 emissions in the long run but it is insignificant in the short run. In addition, the change in CO2 emissions from short run to the long span of time is corrected by about 10 percent each year
Keywords: CO2 emissions, energy consumption, trade openness
Citedy By: 43
An assessment of renewable energy potential for electricity generation in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: MK Farooq, S Kumar
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy ,Vol.20 (), 2013--Pages 240–254
Abstract: Renewable energy for power generation is gaining attention around the world, and for Pakistan, these resources can fulfill the present and future energy demands of the country. Though the potential of renewable energy resources has been assessed in earlier studies, their assessment did not consider the most promising technologies. Moreover, their estimation was static and the future renewable resource potential was not estimated. This study estimates the current and future potential of renewable energy sources for power generation by employing most promising technologies. The technical potential of solar energy from solar photovoltaic and parabolic trough thermal technologies for power generation is estimated to be 149 GW in 2010 and 169 GW in 2050. The suitable area for wind energy generation is available for the capacity installation of 13 GW. The potential from biomass energy sources is 5 GW in 2010 and could be 15 GW in 2050. Small hydro installed capacity under current circumstances can reach 3 GW installed capacity. The current national plans are resulting in exploitation of wind and small hydro plants, but a large technical potential of solar and biomass technologies also exists. The study results clearly demonstrate that renewable energy sources can supplement the energy needs of Pakistan and can provide a sustainable energy base.
Keywords: Geographical potential; Technical potential; Renewable energy sources; Pakistan; Electricity
Citedy By: 0
The energy demand in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan: some further results
[PDF] bilkent.edu.tr
Author: SF Mahmud
Journal: Energy Economics,Vol.22 (6), 2000--Pages 641–648
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to re-examine the role of energy in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan using a Partial Equilibrium Approach. GL restricted cost function along with the factor demand equations were estimated using Zellner’s iterative procedure. Higher energy prices do not seem to adversely affect investment in capital. Substitution possibilities between energy and non-energy inputs are very limited and therefore energy price hikes may directly affect the cost of production. Inter-fuel cross price elasticities indicate that there are substitution possibilities between electricity and gas
Keywords: Energy; Manufacturing; Pakistan
Citedy By: 0
Environmental Kuznets curve for carbon emissions in Pakistan: an empirical investigation
[PDF] 
Author: M Nasir, FU Rehman
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol.39 (3), 2011--Pages 1857–1864
Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between carbon emissions, income, energy consumption, and foreign trade in Pakistan for the period 1972–2008. By employing the Johansen method of cointegration, the study finds that there is a quadratic long-run relationship between carbon emissions and income, confirming the existence of Environmental Kuznets Curve for Pakistan. Moreover, both energy consumption and foreign trade are found to have positive effects on emissions. The short-run results have, however, denied the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The short-run results are unique to the existing literature in the sense that none of the long-run determinants of emissions is significant. The contradictory results of short- and long-run give policy makers the opportunity to formulate different types of growth policies for the two terms taking environmental issues into consideration. In addition, the uni-directional causality from growth to energy consumption suggests that the policy makers should not only focus on forecasting future demand for energy with different growth scenarios but also on obtaining the least cost energy. Furthermore, the absence of causality from emissions to growth suggests that Pakistan can curb its carbon emissions without disturbing its economic growth.
Keywords: Energy Policy, Environmental Kuznets , growth policies, environmental issues
Citedy By: 0
Environmental Kuznets curve for carbon emissions in Pakistan: an empirical investigation
[PDF] 
Author: M Nasir, FU Rehman
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol.39 (3), 2011--Pages 1857–1864
Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between carbon emissions, income, energy consumption, and foreign trade in Pakistan for the period 1972–2008. By employing the Johansen method of cointegration, the study finds that there is a quadratic long-run relationship between carbon emissions and income, confirming the existence of Environmental Kuznets Curve for Pakistan. Moreover, both energy consumption and foreign trade are found to have positive effects on emissions. The short-run results have, however, denied the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The short-run results are unique to the existing literature in the sense that none of the long-run determinants of emissions is significant. The contradictory results of short- and long-run give policy makers the opportunity to formulate different types of growth policies for the two terms taking environmental issues into consideration. In addition, the uni-directional causality from growth to energy consumption suggests that the policy makers should not only focus on forecasting future demand for energy with different growth scenarios but also on obtaining the least cost energy. Furthermore, the absence of causality from emissions to growth suggests that Pakistan can curb its carbon emissions without disturbing its economic growth.
Keywords: Energy Policy, Environmental Kuznets , growth policies, environmental issues
Citedy By: 0
Energy geopolitics and Iran–Pakistan–India gas pipeline
[PDF] 
Author: SK Verma
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol.35 (6), 2007--Pages 3280–3301
Abstract: With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran–Pakistan–India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they might have to confront the US and the western countries in the near future in their attempt to control energy bases. The proposed IPI pipeline is an attempt to acquire such base. However, Pakistan is playing its own game to maximize its leverages. Pakistan, which refuses to establish even normal trading ties with India, craves to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees and other annual royalties from a gas pipeline which runs from Iran's South Pars fields to Barmer in western India. Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become a major forex earner. It is willing to give pipeline related ‘international guarantees’ notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law (such as the export of terrorism) and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization (WTO) rules obligate it to do—Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. India is looking at the possibility of using some set of norms for securing gas supply through pipeline as the European Union has already initiated a discussion on the issue. The key point that is relevant to India's plan to build a pipeline to source gas from Iran relates to national treatment for pipeline. Under the principle of national treatment which also figures in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI), the country through which a pipeline transits should provide some level of security to the transiting pipeline as it would have provided to its domestic pipelines. This paper will endeavor to analyze, first, the significance of this pipeline for India and then the geopolitics involved in it.
Keywords: Geopolitics; WTO; gas Pipeline
Citedy By: 43
Energy substitution in Pakistan's manufacturing
[PDF] 
Author: S CHISHTI, F MAHMUD
Journal: Pakistan Economic and Social Review,Vol.26 (1), 1988--Pages 57-64
Abstract: The demand for energy in Pakistan's industrial sector has been growing at an annual rate of 6.3%. The sector uses about 30% of the commercial energy out of which gas accounts for 38% and electricity 30%. The composition of demand in terms of different energy carriers has been changing. Also the intensity of production has also been increasing. As a result gap between potential demand and supply is widening. Unless strides are made to optimize the production and use of energy, Pakistan is likely to face serious crises in future. The main purpose of the study is to estimate the substitution elasticities between energy and non energy inputs in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. This analysis is at the firm level
Keywords: Price elasticity, Energy, Prices, Cements, Manufacturing industries, Rayon Production functions, Cost functions, Demand
Citedy By: 5
Recent progress in renewable energy–Remedy of energy crisis in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: AB Awan, ZA Khan
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.33 (), 2014--Pages 236–253
Abstract: Energy plays a pivotal role for the economic development of a country. A reliable source of energy is needed to improve the living standard of people. Today, industrial progress plays a vital role in the development of any country but the industrial progress depends on reliable supply of electricity. However, Pakistan is passing through an energy crisis that is seriously affecting the lives of people. The main reason for the energy crisis is rapidly increasing the prices of hydro-carbon resources and lack of planning to foresee the increasing energy demand in the country. Renewable energy (RE) can play an important role to minimize this crisis. Besides the depletion of fossil fuel, the accumulation of their emissions has catastrophic effects on our environment. Modern civilizations are more curious about environmental cleanliness. Environmental pollution is supposed to be a serious threat to the life on our planet. Our earth could heat up by several degrees in future if we do not stop using non-renewable energy resources. In this article, the exiting production of renewable energy through different RE technologies is discussed and the potential capacity of production of energy through these technologies in Pakistan is studied. Some suggestions are also proposed to increase the RE share in the energy mix of the country
Keywords: Renewable energy; Solar energy; Wind energy; Micro-hydel; Bio-fuel; Bio mass; Energy crisis
Citedy By: 42
Climatic variations in comfortable temperatures: the Pakistan projects
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: JF Nicol, IA Raja, A Allaudin, GN Jamy
Journal: Energy and buildings,Vol.30 (3), 1999--Pages 261–279
Abstract: Two thermal comfort surveys in Pakistan are described. One was longitudinal conducted in summer and winter, the other was transverse with monthly surveys over a whole year. The surveys were conducted in five cities each representing a particular climatic region. The use of building controls and clothing is analysed. There is close agreement between the findings of the two surveys despite differences in methodology. The surveys show that there is a definite relationship between indoor comfort and outdoor conditions in line with an adaptive approach to thermal comfort. The current International Standard does not accurately reflect these. Because of the large variations in indoor temperature in many Pakistani buildings, the surveys also indicate the limits of people's ability to adapt to indoor temperatures.
Keywords: Thermal comfort; Field survey; Longitudinal survey; Transverse survey; Adaptive model; Temperature standards
Citedy By: 225
The demand for energy in the large-scale manufacturing sector of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: F Mahmud, S Chishti
Journal: Energy Economics,Vol.12 (4), 1990--Pages 251-254
Abstract: The extent of interfuel substitution, as well as substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, in the large-scale manufacturing sector of Pakistan has been examined. The model has been estimated in two stages. In the first stage input demand for various energy components is estimated and hence an aggregate Divisia index is constructed. In the second stage this index is used as an instrument to estimate aggregate input demand for capital, labour and energy along with their price and substitution elasticities. It seems that there is little interfuel substitution. The results also show that energy and labour are substitutes while energy and capital are complement.
Keywords: Energy, Manufacturing, Pakistan
Citedy By: 25
Prospects of renewable energy sources in Pakistan
[PDF] comsats.org
Author: NA Zaigham, Z Nayyar
Journal: Energy Technologies and Sustainable ,Vol. (), 2005--Pages 
Abstract: Professor & Director Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan Lecturer Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi Karachi, Pakistan Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy- deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities, because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from a variety of traditional and commercial sources. Share of various primary energy-sources in energy-supply mix remained during last few years as oil: 43.5%, gas: 41.5%, LPG: 0.3%, coal: 4.5%, hydro-electricity: 9.2%, and nuclear electricity: 1.1%. The electric-power generation included 71.9% thermal, 25.2% hydel and 2.9% nuclear. While there is no prospect for Pakistan to reach self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons, a good option is the exploitation and utilization of the huge coal-reserves of Thar and the other renewable energy sources. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional as well as non-conventional, which have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. Thus, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge. Present observations, based on reviewing the geological setup, geographical position, climatological cycles and the agricultural/industrial/ urbanization activities, reveal that there are bright prospects for the exploitation of various renewable-energy sources, which include mega & macro/micro-hydel, biomass, biogas, wind, solar, co-generation, city and other solid wastes, utilization of low-head canal levels, sea wave & tide and geothermal energies etc. Technologically, all these renewable-energy sources are viable and consequently suited to efforts for poverty alleviation and cleaner environment in Pakistan. The country can be benefited by harnessing these options of energy-generation as substitute energy in areas where sources exist. As Pakistan is an agricultural country and major part of its population lives in the rural areas, the electricity generated by renewable sources will also improve rural life, thereby reducing the urban migration that is taxing the ability of cities to cope with their own environmental problems
Keywords: Energy Technologies and Sustainable
Citedy By: 33
Exercising multidisciplinary approach to assess interrelationship between energy use, carbon emission and land use change in a metropolitan city of Pakistan
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: G Ali, V Nitivattananon
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.16 (1), 2012--Pages 775–786
Abstract: Population of two cities in Pakistan has already crossed the 10-million figure and for the rest of the areas in the country populations are also increasing rapidly. Urbanization has boosted the use of energy in the cities and so is greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions but the ground situation as to the extent, vulnerability, past trends and future scenarios are not unveiled for the cities of Pakistan. Dearth of data in Pakistan is a huge hindrance to the investigation of energy use and actual GHG emissions. We dared to take steps in addressing this case and put preliminary efforts in compiling baseline sectoral breakdown of energy use, carbon emission and land cover/land use. Furthermore, the relationship of CO2 source and sink is also explored. This study mainly tries to achieve three objectives. The results illustrate that industrial and residential sectors are vibrant consumers of energy and CO2 emitters among all other sectors of the city. Sparse trees in the city and reduced agriculture areas by more than one-half in 2009 compared with those in 1975 are the main reasons for increased energy use and reduced CO2emissions from agriculture sector as well. However, all the other sectors have increased their CO2 emissions in an escalating trend. The forecast analysis portrays the same trend too. Therefore, there is a need to make policy makers recognize such vulnerable situation of energy use and GHG emissions for them to take proper and timely actions to cope with the threats of climate change which can occur anytime in the very near future
Keywords: CO2 emissions; Sink–source relationship; Multidisciplinary approach; Remote sensing
Citedy By: 45
Substitution of labour, capital and energy in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: M Iqbal
Journal: Empirical Economics,Vol.11 (2), 1986--Pages 81–95
Abstract: Share equations of labour, capital, energy and fuel types, derived from translog cost functions, are estimated by Zellner iterative method to obtain elasticities of labour, capital, energy and fuel types and elasticities of substitution between them. Labour, capital and energy appear as substitutes, natural gas and electricity as complements, and other fuels as substitutes.
Keywords: labour, capital and energy
Citedy By: 34
Bivariate cointegration between energy consumption and development factors: a case study of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: K Zaman, MM Khan, Z Saleem
Journal: Journal of Green Energy,Vol.8 (8), 2011--Pages 
Abstract: The relationship between total energy consumption and economic growth has been extensively explored in the past, but relatively few researchers have examined the increasing trend of energy consumption and development policies of a developing country like Pakistan as well as direction of causation of this relationship that remains controversial. The objective of this paper is to empirically investigate four alternatives but equally plausible hypotheses. These are as follows: (i) development factors cause total primary energy consumption, (ii) energy consumption cause development factors, (iii) there is a bidirectional causality between the two variables, and (iv) both variables are causality independent. To investigate the relationship between the two variables set, a time series cointegration and Granger causality tests have been employed separately. Secondary data pertaining to Pakistan from 1980 to 2009 has been used for analysis. The empirical result of causality strongly supports the bidirectional relationship between carbon dioxide emission and energy demand and industrialization and energy demand. There is a unidirectional causality relationship between the energy demand and population growth. However, neither agriculture value addition nor energy demand affect each other.
Keywords: Energy consumption, Carbon dioxide emission, Industry value added, Agriculture value added, Population growth, Cointegration, Pakistan
Citedy By: 0
Electrical energy crisis in Pakistan and their possible solutions
[PDF] 
Author: MA Javaid, S Hussain, A Maqsood
Journal: Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences ,Vol.11 (5), 2011--Pages 
Abstract: This work presents the dilemma of shortfall in the supply of electrical energy that is currently faced by Pakistan. The root cause of this shortage in the supply of energy is mentioned in this work. An abridged history as well as the present situation of the electricity production and its consumption in the country is discussed. The electricity generation potential of Pakistan in different sectors to produce energy is viewed. The importance of utilization of coal resources and water resources for the production of electric power is discussed. Pakistan has been blessed with rich and vast renewable energy (RE) resources. These renewable energy resources can play effective and considerable role in contributing towards energy security and energy independence of the country. Some predictions are made on the basis of empirical data and preliminary observations. An estimated forecast of demand and supply of electricity for the next twenty years is also projected in this article
Keywords: Electrical Power energy, energy crisis, electricity generation, renewable energy resources
Citedy By: 0
Time series models to simulate and forecast hourly averaged wind speed in Quetta, Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: L Kamal, YZ Jafri
Journal: Solar Energy,Vol.61 (1), 1999--Pages 23-32
Abstract: Stochastic simulation and forecast models of hourly average wind speeds are presented. Time series models take into account several basic features of wind speed data including autocorrelation, non-Gaussian distribution and diurnal nonstationarity. The positive correlation between consecutive wind speed observations is taken into account by flitting an ARMA (p,q) process to wind speed data transformed to make their distribution approximately Gaussian and standardized to remove scattering of transformed data. Diurnal variations have been taken into account to observe forecasts and its dependence on lead times. We find the ARMA (p,q) model suitable for prediction intervals and probability forecasts.
Keywords: Autocorrelation, Non-Gaussian, Probability forecasts
Citedy By: 234
Does renewable energy consumption add in economic growth? An application of auto-regressive distributed lag model in Pakistan
[PDF] esearchgate.net
Author: M Shahbaz, N Loganathan, M Zeshan
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy ,Vol.44 (), 2015--Pages 576–585
Abstract: The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth by incorporating capital and labour as potential determinants of production function in case of Pakistan. This study used auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL) model and rolling window approach (RWA) for cointegration in context of Pakistan. The study used quarterly data over the period of 1972Q1–2011Q4. The causality analysis applied through VECM Granger causality and innovative accounting approaches. The results reveal that all the variables in the study are cointegrated that shows the long run relationship between the variables. Furthermore, renewable energy consumption, capital and labour boost economic growth. The causality analysis shows the feedback effect between economic growth and renewable energy consumption
Keywords: Renewable energy; Economic growth; Pakistan, auto-regressive
Citedy By: 28
Energy requirement and economic analysis of rice production in western part of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: MA Khan, IU Awan, J Zafar
Journal: Soil and Environment (Pakistan,Vol.28 (1), 2009--Pages 60-67
Abstract: This study examines energy use pattern and the relationship between energy inputs and rice production in Dera Ismail Khan, District of Pakistan. The information used in this study were based on cross-sectional data collected from growers by using face-to-face interviews. The sample farms were selected through a stratified sampling technique. The results revealed that energy consumption and rice yield were 5,756 kWh and 3.23 tones per hectare on Bullock Operated Farms (BOF) and 11,162 kWh and 4.12 tones per hectare on Tractor Operated Farms (TOF). Consumption of animate energy on BOF was more than TOF due to heavy use of animate energy in land preparation operation. Result also showed that energy efficiency i.e. output-input ratio on BOF (6.32) was higher than TOF (4.16). Cost of production remained lower on BOF than TOF, however, the yield and consequently crop values and net return were higher on TOF than BOF. It was concluded that increase in energy consumption at farm level increased yield of rice, hence the farmers with higher cost of production could get better return of their crop
Keywords: Economic analysis, energy consumption, Oryza sativa, production economics, Pakistan
Citedy By: 19
Empirical models for the correlation of monthly average daily global solar radiation with hours of sunshine on a horizontal surface at Karachi, Pakistan
[PDF] journals.tubitak.gov.tr
Author: F Ahmed, I Ulfat
Journal: Turkish Journal of Physics,Vol. (), 2004--Pages 
Abstract: A new set of constants for Angstrom-type correlation of first and second order, to estimate monthly average daily global solar radiation, has been obtained employing sunshine hours data recorded at Karachi, Pakistan (Lat. 24◦ 540 N, Long. 67◦ 080 E). Least square regression is performed to derive these constants. The correlation equations developed are employed to calculate the monthly average daily global solar radiation. These results are then compared with various other existing correlations and the measured data. Excellent agreement has been found between the estimated and the measured values.
Keywords: daily global solar radiation, Least square regression
Citedy By: 71
] Baloch nationalism and the geopolitics of energy resources: The changing context of separatism in Pakistan
[PDF] dtic.mil
Author: RG Wirsing
Journal: books.google.com,Vol. (), 2005--Pages 
Abstract: This monograph examines the Baloch separatist insurgency that has resurfaced in recent years in Pakistan's sprawling Balochistan province. The author maintains that the context of today's insurgency differs in certain important respects from that of its 1970s
Keywords: Pakistan's sprawling, Balochistan
Citedy By: 35
Towards a new measurement of energy poverty: A cross-community analysis of rural Pakistan
[PDF] maastrichtuniversity.nl
Author: B Mirza, E Szirmai
Journal: UNU-MERIT Working Papers 2010 ,Vol. (), 2010--Pages 
Abstract: Most rural households in Pakistan remain in a state of energy poverty. They use a variety of non-conventional energy sources, including traditional biomass (firewood, animal and plant waste), kerosene and even LPG. A specially designed Energy Poverty Survey (EPS), carried out in rural Pakistan from December 2008 till January 2009, showed that rural households use different combinations of energy sources (the energy mix). This paper analyses the characteristics and consequences of the different energy mixes, used by richer and poorer rural households. Using data from the EPS, we develop a composite index to measure the degree of Energy Poverty among rural households. This index takes into account the inconvenience for the household associated with the use of different sources of energy, as well as its energy shortfall and takes household size into account. In our results, we found that 23.1% of rural households experience high degrees of energy inconveniences, spending ample amount of their time and effort in collecting or buying different energy sources. Next, using the standard conversion units to convert different energy sources into kilowatt hours, we found that 96.6% rural households experience severe energy shortfalls. Our new and inclusive measure of energy poverty which combines the energy inconveniences and the energy shortfalls, reveals that 91.7% of all rural households in Punjab province of Pakistan are in the state of severe energy poverty
Keywords: energy access; energy poverty measurement; energy indicators; energy inconvenience index; energy poverty index
Citedy By: 32
Prospects of renewables penetration in the energy mix of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: SZ Farooqui
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.29 (), 2014--Pages 693–700
Abstract: Pakistan is the sixth most populous country of the world comprising 2.56% of the total global population. However, it ranks 37th in the energy consumption, at 0.37% of the world total. The per capita energy availability is only 43 W, which is 1/7th of the world average. The greatest reason for such a huge energy deficiency is its heavy dependence on imported oil for power generation. The country is however, rich in renewable energy sources and has vast potential for their exploitation. In this article, a survey of the availability of various renewable energy sources, including hydel, solar, wind and biomass, and their current and future penetration prospects in the total energy mix have been carried out, with some recommendations. It is estimated that Pakistan has the feasible potential of 30 GW of installed power capacity from hydel and 50 GW of installed capacity from wind by 2030
Keywords: Pakistan′s energy; Energy mix; Renewable energy; Wind energy; Solar energy; Biomass
Citedy By: 29
Solar and wind energy potential and utilization in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: IA Raja, RS Abro
Journal: Renewable Energy,Vol.5 (1-4), 1994--Pages 583-586
Abstract: Pakistan needs substantial amount of energy to develop its industry and to increase the agricultural productivity. The available indigenous energy resources are limited. The only option which the country has to pursue is renewable energy. This paper identifies the potentials of solar and wind energy. The prime sites for wind are coastal area, arid zone and hill terrains. Solar energy is abundant over most part of the country, maximum being received over Quetta valley.
Keywords: Solar energy, Wind energy, Energy conservation, Renewable energy, Clean energy resources
Citedy By: 21
Relationship between financial leverage and financial performance: Evidence from fuel & energy sector of Pakistan
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: S Akhtar, B Javed, A Maryam, H Sadia
Journal: European Journal of Business & Management,Vol. (), 2012--Pages 
Abstract: Fuel and energy sector serves as the backbone of the economy. The segment provides support, not only for the economic development of the country by showing positive trends towards the sectoral growth, but also serves as a steering wheel for the growth of manufacturing, trading and service sector. It provides significant inputs for production, trade and service. A general concept prevails that the financial leverage is helpful to enhance the financial performance of the companies. For measuring the impact of financial leverage on the financial health of the companies, it is essential to know whether a positive relationship exists between the financial leverage and financial performance or not? So, this study is intended to test the hypothesis and to measure a relationship between the financial leverage and the financial performance of the fuel and energy sector in Pakistan. The paper also examines the generalization that firms with higher profitability may choose high leverage by using various statistical tools. The findings of the study show a positive relationship between the financial leverage and the financial performance of the companies by accepting the alternate hypothesis H1 and Ho is rejected. The results of the study confirm that the firms having higher profitability may improve their financial performance by having high levels of financial leverage. The study provides evidence by evaluating different facts. It reveals that the players of the fuel and energy in Pakistan can improve at their financial performance by employing the financial leverage and can arrive at a sustainable future growth by making vital decisions about the choice of their optimal capital structure.
Keywords: Financial leverage, Firms’ Performance, Key Indicators- Financial Ratios, Fuel and Energy Sector in Pakistan
Citedy By: 29
Relationship between financial leverage and financial performance: Evidence from fuel & energy sector of Pakistan
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: S Akhtar, B Javed, A Maryam, H Sadia
Journal: European Journal of Business & Management,Vol. (), 2012--Pages 
Abstract: Fuel and energy sector serves as the backbone of the economy. The segment provides support, not only for the economic development of the country by showing positive trends towards the sectoral growth, but also serves as a steering wheel for the growth of manufacturing, trading and service sector. It provides significant inputs for production, trade and service. A general concept prevails that the financial leverage is helpful to enhance the financial performance of the companies. For measuring the impact of financial leverage on the financial health of the companies, it is essential to know whether a positive relationship exists between the financial leverage and financial performance or not? So, this study is intended to test the hypothesis and to measure a relationship between the financial leverage and the financial performance of the fuel and energy sector in Pakistan. The paper also examines the generalization that firms with higher profitability may choose high leverage by using various statistical tools. The findings of the study show a positive relationship between the financial leverage and the financial performance of the companies by accepting the alternate hypothesis H1 and Ho is rejected. The results of the study confirm that the firms having higher profitability may improve their financial performance by having high levels of financial leverage. The study provides evidence by evaluating different facts. It reveals that the players of the fuel and energy in Pakistan can improve at their financial performance by employing the financial leverage and can arrive at a sustainable future growth by making vital decisions about the choice of their optimal capital structure.
Keywords: Financial leverage, Firms’ Performance, Key Indicators- Financial Ratios, Fuel and Energy Sector in Pakistan
Citedy By: 29
The relationship between electricity consumption, electricity prices and GDP in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: F Jamil, E Ahmad
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol. (), 2010--Pages 
Abstract: This study analyzes the relationship among electricity consumption, its price and real GDP at the aggregate and sectoral level in Pakistan. Using annual data for the period 1960–2008, the study finds the presence of unidirectional causality from real economic activity to electricity consumption. In particular, growth in output in commercial, manufacturing and agricultural sectors tend to increase electricity consumption, while in residential sector, growth in private expenditures is the cause of rising electricity consumption. The study concludes that electricity production and management needs to be better integrated with overall economic planning exercises. This is essential to avoid electricity shortfalls and unplanned load shedding.
Keywords: Cointegration, Electricity, VECM
Citedy By: 131
Energy conservation policies, growth and trade performance: Evidence of feedback hypothesis in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: SA Raza, M Shahbaz, DK Nguyen
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol.38 (10), 2010--Pages 6016–6025
Abstract: This study analyzes the relationship among electricity consumption, its price and real GDP at the aggregate and sectoral level in Pakistan. Using annual data for the period 1960–2008, the study finds the presence of unidirectional causality from real economic activity to electricity consumption. In particular, growth in output in commercial, manufacturing and agricultural sectors tend to increase electricity consumption, while in residential sector, growth in private expenditures is the cause of rising electricity consumption. The study concludes that electricity production and management needs to be better integrated with overall economic planning exercises. This is essential to avoid electricity shortfalls and unplanned load shedding
Keywords: Cointegration; Electricity; VECM
Citedy By: 34
The cost of unserved energy: evidence from selected industrial cities of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: R Siddiqui, HH Jalil, M Nasir, WS Malik
Journal: The Pakistan Development Review,Vol.47 (3), 2008--Pages 227-246
Abstract: This study is an attempt to explore the cost of unserved energy due to power outages in Pakistan that started in 2007. The study is based on a survey conducted for four major industrial cities of Punjab—Gujrat, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, and Sialkot. In addition to quantification of output losses, the effect on employment, cost of production, and delay in supply orders are also examined. The output loss is quantified using two-dimensional analyses, controlling for variations in the duration of outages and in the shift hours. The survey data reveal that employment has not suffered any significant drop due to alternative energy arrangements. These arrangements, nevertheless, have increased the production cost of the firms. Delays in the delivery of supply orders are also due to energy shortage. The study reports that the total industrial output loss varies between 12 percent and 37 percent, with Punjab as the major affected province. In the two dimensional analysis resulting in nine scenarios for each province, the ranges of losses in billion Rs are 132-400, 109-331, 17-54 and 11-34 for Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan respectively. The overall industrial sector loss in volume ranges between 269-819 billion rupees. In the overall analysis, food and beverages, textile, and chemical product industries are respectively the top three industries on the scale of losses. However, in terms of percentages, the pottery and ceramic industry is the industry that suffered the most
Keywords: energy shortage, energy evidence
Citedy By: 28
RETRACTED: Causal links between greenhouse gas emissions, economic growth and energy consumption in Pakistan: A fatal disorder of society
[PDF] URL
Author: MA Khan, MZ Khan, K Zaman, MM Khan, H Zahoor
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.25 (0), 2013--Pages 166-176
Abstract: Many chemical compounds found in the Earth's atmosphere act as “greenhouse gases.” These gases allow sunlight to enter the atmosphere freely. When sunlight strikes the Earth's surface, some of it is reflected back towards space as infrared radiation (heat). Greenhouse
Keywords: sunlight strikes, energy consumption in Pakistan
Citedy By: 26
Energy Crisis in Pakistan: Origins, Challenges, and Sustainable Solutions
[PDF] ideas.repec.org
Author: M Asif – OUP
Journal: Catalogue,Vol. (), 2012--Pages 
Abstract: The book primarily aims to educate various stakeholders of society (i.e. policy and decision makers, energy circles, academia, business community, NGOs and civil society) on the subject of energy, particularly in the wider context of the energy crisis facing Pakistan. In a global perspective, it presents an account of the key dimensions of energy in the modern age. Having discussed the energy challenges facing Pakistan, the book provides recommendations and policy guidelines to achieve energy prosperity in the country. It has a holistic, yet easy to follow approach. It presents a coherent blend of the technical and the social aspects of energy. Using appealing diagrams and data presentations, it explains the subject in a reader-friendly way. Referring to examples and citing case studies from developed as well as developing countries it offers plenty of food for thought to its audience. The foreword to the book has been written by Dr Muhammad Yunus, the winner of the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize.
Keywords: Energy Crisis, developing countries, Energy Crisis in Pakistan, energy challenges facing Pakistan
Citedy By: 23
Does renewable energy consumption add in economic growth? An application of auto-regressive distributed lag model in Pakistan
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: M Shahbaz, N Loganathan, M Zeshan
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Volume,Vol.44 (0), 2015--Pages  576-585
Abstract: The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth by incorporating capital and labour as potential determinants of production function in case of Pakistan. This study used auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL) model and rolling window approach (RWA) for cointegration in context of Pakistan. The study used quarterly data over the period of 1972Q1–2011Q4. The causality analysis applied through VECM Granger causality and innovative accounting approaches. The results reveal that all the variables in the study are cointegrated that shows the long run relationship between the variables. Furthermore, renewable energy consumption, capital and labour boost economic growth. The causality analysis shows the feedback effect between economic growth and renewable energy consumption.
Keywords: Renewable energy; Economic growth; Pakistan, auto-regressive
Citedy By: 28
Energy requirement and economic analysis of rice production in western part of Pakistan
[PDF] agris.fao.org
Author: MA Khan, IU Awan, J Zafar
Journal: Soil and Environment (Pakistan),Vol.28 (1), 2009--Pages 60-67
Abstract: This study examines energy use pattern and the relationship between energy inputs and rice production in Dera Ismail Khan, District of Pakistan. The information used in this study were based on cross-sectional data collected from growers by using face-to-face interviews. The sample farms were selected through a stratified sampling technique. The results revealed that energy consumption and rice yield were 5,756 kWh and 3.23 tones per hectare on Bullock Operated Farms (BOF) and 11,162 kWh and 4.12 tones per hectare on Tractor Operated Farms (TOF). Consumption of animate energy on BOF was more than TOF due to heavy use of animate energy in land preparation operation. Result also showed that energy efficiency i.e. output-input ratio on BOF (6.32) was higher than TOF (4.16). Cost of production remained lower on BOF than TOF, however, the yield and consequently crop values and net return were higher on TOF than BOF. It was concluded that increase in energy consumption at farm level increased yield of rice, hence the farmers with higher cost of production could get better return of their crop.
Keywords: economic analysis, energy consumption, Oryza sativa, production economics, Pakistan
Citedy By: 19
Empirical models for the correlation of monthly average daily global solar radiation with hours of sunshine on a horizontal surface at Karachi, Pakistan
[PDF] tubitak.gov.tr
Author: F Ahmed, I Ulfat and also
Journal: Turkish Journal of Physics,Vol. (), 2004--Pages 
Abstract: A new set of constants for Angstrom-type correlation of first and second order, to estimate monthly average daily global solar radiation, has been obtained employing sunshine hours data recorded at Karachi, Pakistan (Lat. 24◦ 540 N, Long. 67◦ 080 E). Least square regression is performed to derive these constants. The correlation equations developed are employed to calculate the monthly average daily global solar radiation. These results are then compared with various other existing correlations and the measured data. Excellent agreement has been found between the estimated and the measured values.
Keywords: global solar radiation, sunshine
Citedy By: 71
Baloch nationalism and the geopolitics of energy resources: The changing context of separatism in Pakistan
[PDF] dtic.mil
Author: RG Wirsing – 2012
Journal: books.google.com,Vol. (), --Pages 
Abstract: This monograph examines the Baloch separatist insurgency that has resurfaced in recent years in Pakistan's sprawling Balochistan province. The author maintains that the context of today's insurgency differs in certain important respects from that of its 1970s
Keywords: energy resources, Baloch nationalism
Citedy By: 35
Towards a new measurement of energy poverty: A cross-community analysis of rural Pakistan
[PDF] maastrichtuniversity.nl
Author: B Mirza, E Szirmai
Journal: UNU-MERIT Working Papers,Vol. (), 2010--Pages 
Abstract: Most rural households in Pakistan remain in a state of energy poverty. They use a variety of non-conventional energy sources, including traditional biomass (firewood, animal and plant waste), kerosene and even LPG. A specially designed Energy Poverty Survey (EPS), carried out in rural Pakistan from December 2008 till January 2009, showed that rural households use different combinations of energy sources (the energy mix). This paper analyses the characteristics and consequences of the different energy mixes, used by richer and poorer rural households. Using data from the EPS, we develop a composite index to measure the degree of Energy Poverty among rural households. This index takes into account the inconvenience for the household associated with the use of different sources of energy, as well as its energy shortfall and takes household size into account. In our results, we found that 23.1% of rural households experience high degrees of energy inconveniences, spending ample amount of their time and effort in collecting or buying different energy sources. Next, using the standard conversion units to convert different energy sources into kilowatt hours, we found that 96.6% rural households experience severe energy shortfalls. Our new and inclusive measure of energy poverty which combines the energy inconveniences and the energy shortfalls, reveals that 91.7% of all rural households in Punjab province of Pakistan are in the state of severe energy poverty.
Keywords: Energy access; energy poverty measurement; energy indicators; energy inconvenience index; energy poverty index
Citedy By: 32
Prospects of renewables penetration in the energy mix of Pakistan
[PDF] URL
Author: SZ Farooqui
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews2014,Vol. (), 29--Pages 
Abstract: Pakistan is the sixth most populous country of the world comprising 2.56% of the total global population. However, it ranks 37th in the energy consumption, at 0.37% of the world total. The per capita energy availability is only 43 W, which is 1/7th of the world average. The greatest reason for such a huge energy deficiency is its heavy dependence on imported oil for power generation. The country is however, rich in renewable energy sources and has vast potential for their exploitation. In this article, a survey of the availability of various renewable energy sources, including hydel, solar, wind and biomass, and their current and future penetration prospects in the total energy mix have been carried out, with some recommendations. It is estimated that Pakistan has the feasible potential of 30 GW of installed power capacity from hydel and 50 GW of installed capacity from wind by 2030.
Keywords: Pakistan′s energy; Energy mix; Renewable energy; Wind energy; Solar energy; Biomass
Citedy By: 29
Solar and wind energy potential and utilization in Pakistan
[PDF] URL
Author: IA Raja, RS Abro
Journal: Renewable Energy,Vol.5 (), 1994--Pages 583-586
Abstract: Pakistan needs substantial amount of energy to develop its industry and to increase the agricultural productivity. The available indigenous energy resources are limited. The only option which the country has to pursue is renewable energy. This paper identifies the potentials of solar and wind energy. The prime sites for wind are coastal area, arid zone and hill terrains. Solar energy is abundant over most part of the country, maximum being received over Quetta valley.
Keywords: Solar energy, Wind energy, Energy conservation, Renewable energy, Clean energy resources
Citedy By: 21
Relationship between financial leverage and financial performance: Evidence from fuel & energy sector of Pakistan
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: S Akhtar, B Javed, A Maryam, H Sadia
Journal: European Journal of Business & Management,Vol. (), 2012--Pages 
Abstract: Fuel and energy sector serves as the backbone of the economy. The segment provides support, not only for the economic development of the country by showing positive trends towards the sectoral growth, but also serves as a steering wheel for the growth of manufacturing, trading and service sector. It provides significant inputs for production, trade and service. A general concept prevails that the financial leverage is helpful to enhance the financial performance of the companies. For measuring the impact of financial leverage on the financial health of the companies, it is essential to know whether a positive relationship exists between the financial leverage and financial performance or not? So, this study is intended to test the hypothesis and to measure a relationship between the financial leverage and the financial performance of the fuel and energy sector in Pakistan. The paper also examines the generalization that firms with higher profitability may choose high leverage by using various statistical tools. The findings of the study show a positive relationship between the financial leverage and the financial performance of the companies by accepting the alternate hypothesis H1 and Ho is rejected. The results of the study confirm that the firms having higher profitability may improve their financial performance by having high levels of financial leverage. The study provides evidence by evaluating different facts. It reveals that the players of the fuel and energy in Pakistan can improve at their financial performance by employing the financial leverage and can arrive at a sustainable future growth by making vital decisions about the choice of their optimal capital structure.
Keywords: Financial leverage, Firms’ Performance, Key Indicators- Financial Ratios, Fuel and Energy Sector in Pakistan
Citedy By: 29
The relationship between electricity consumption, electricity prices and GDP in Pakistan
[PDF] URL
Author: F Jamil, E Ahmad
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol. (), 2010--Pages 
Abstract: This study analyzes the relationship among electricity consumption, its price and real GDP at the aggregate and sectoral level in Pakistan. Using annual data for the period 1960–2008, the study finds the presence of unidirectional causality from real economic activity to electricity consumption. In particular, growth in output in commercial, manufacturing and agricultural sectors tend to increase electricity consumption, while in residential sector, growth in private expenditures is the cause of rising electricity consumption. The study concludes that electricity production and management needs to be better integrated with overall economic planning exercises. This is essential to avoid electricity shortfalls and unplanned load shedding.
Keywords: Cointegration, Electricity, VECM
Citedy By: 131
Energy conservation policies, growth and trade performance: Evidence of feedback hypothesis in Pakistan
[PDF] uni-muenchen.de
Author: SA Raza, M Shahbaz, DK Nguyen
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol.38 (10), 2010--Pages 6016-6025
Abstract: This study analyzes the relationship among electricity consumption, its price and real GDP at the aggregate and sectoral level in Pakistan. Using annual data for the period 1960–2008, the study finds the presence of unidirectional causality from real economic activity to electricity consumption. In particular, growth in output in commercial, manufacturing and agricultural sectors tend to increase electricity consumption, while in residential sector, growth in private expenditures is the cause of rising electricity consumption. The study concludes that electricity production and management needs to be better integrated with overall economic planning exercises. This is essential to avoid electricity shortfalls and unplanned load shedding.
Keywords: Cointegration; Electricity; VECM
Citedy By: 34
The cost of unserved energy: evidence from selected industrial cities of Pakistan
[PDF] core.ac.uk
Author: R Siddiqui, HH Jalil, M Nasir, WS Malik
Journal: The Pakistan Development Review,Vol.47 (3), 2008--Pages 227-246
Abstract: This study is an attempt to explore the cost of unserved energy due to power outages in Pakistan that started in 2007. The study is based on a survey conducted for four major industrial cities of Punjab—Gujrat, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, and Sialkot. In addition to quantification of output losses, the effect on employment, cost of production, and delay in supply orders are also examined. The output loss is quantified using two-dimensional analyses, controlling for variations in the duration of outages and in the shift hours. The survey data reveal that employment has not suffered any significant drop due to alternative energy arrangements. These arrangements, nevertheless, have increased the production cost of the firms. Delays in the delivery of supply orders are also due to energy shortage. The study reports that the total industrial output loss varies between 12 percent and 37 percent, with Punjab as the major affected province. In the two dimensional analysis resulting in nine scenarios for each province, the ranges of losses in billion Rs are 132-400, 109-331, 17-54 and 11-34 for Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan respectively. The overall industrial sector loss in volume ranges between 269-819 billion rupees. In the overall analysis, food and beverages, textile, and chemical product industries are respectively the top three industries on the scale of losses. However, in terms of percentages, the pottery and ceramic industry is the industry that suffered the most.
Keywords: unserved energy, two-dimensional analyses
Citedy By: 28
The linkages between deforestation, energy and growth for environmental degradation in Pakistan
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: K Ahmed, M Shahbaz, A Qasim, W Long
Journal: Ecological Indicators,Vol.49 (), 2015--Pages 95-103
Abstract: This study explores the validation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for Pakistan using time series data from 1980–2013 with deforestation as an indicator (dependent variable) for environmental degradation, and four independent variables (economic growth, energy consumption, trade openness, and population) were also examined. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration and the VECM–Granger causality test were applied. The results confirmed the existence of cointegration among the variables both in long- and short-run paths. However, the diminishing negative impact of economic growth on deforestation in the long-run confirms the EKC hypothesis for deforestation in Pakistan. Moreover, economic growth and energy consumption Granger cause deforestation. A bidirectional causal effect is detected between economic growth and energy consumption, however, in the long-run, economic growth and trade openness Granger cause energy consumption. This study was designed with several significant tests to ensure the reliability of results for policy use and to contribute to future studies on the environment-growth-energy nexus.
Keywords: Deforestation; Energy Consumption; Environmental Kuznets Curve; Cointegration; Pakistan
Citedy By: 34
Pakistan: energy planning in a strategic vortex, Pages-155.
[PDF] URL
Author: CK Ebinger
Journal: Indiana University Press,Vol. (), 1981--Pages 
Abstract: Abstract missing
Keywords: Keywords
Citedy By: 21
Energy-poverty alleviation in Pakistan through use of indigenous energy resources11This paper is based on a presentation made at the 1st International Conference
[PDF] URL
Author: AW Bhutto, S Karim
Journal: Energy for Sustainable Development,Vol.11 (1), 2007--Pages 58-67
Abstract: The relation between access to energy and indicators of development is well established. It is directly related to most pressing social, economic, environmental, and security issues like poverty, jobs and income level, access to social services, population growth, industrial and agricultural production, food security, health, climate change and environmental quality which affect sustainable development. It is predicted that access to energy will become an acute problem in developing countries in the near future, mainly under the impact of population growth and the rising cost of fuels. This paper looks at how access to and use of energy are related to poverty. It also provides an overview of Pakistan's energy sector, discusses levels of energy services available to people in Pakistan, and potential future energy resources available at local level and their benefits. The study concludes by addressing the growing energy challenges; it has become inevitable for Pakistan to diversify its energy resources through developing indigenous energy resources, especially the renewables.
Keywords: Energy-poverty, energy resources, Pakistan's energy sector, growing energy
Citedy By: 20
Energy use and output growth in Canada: a multivariate cointegration analysis
[PDF] URL
Author: KH Ghali, MIT El-Sakka
Journal: Energy Economics,Vol.26 (2), 2004--Pages 225-238
Abstract: Using a neo-classical one-sector aggregate production technology where capital, labor and energy are treated as separate inputs, this paper develops a vector error-correction (VEC) model to test for the existence and direction of causality between output growth and energy use in Canada. Using the Johansen cointegration technique, the empirical findings indicate that the long-run movements of output, labor, capital and energy use in Canada are related by two cointegrating vectors. Then using a VEC specification, the short-run dynamics of the variables indicate that Granger-causality is running in both directions between output growth and energy use. Hence, an important policy implication of the analysis is that energy can be considered as a limiting factor to output growth in Canada.
Keywords: Vector error-correction; Neutrality hypothesis; Energy
Citedy By: 0
Determinants of rural household energy choices: an example from Pakistan
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: I Jan, H Khan, S Hayat
Journal: Polish Journal of Environmental Studies,Vol.21 (3), 2012--Pages 635-641
Abstract: Multiple fuels-multiple choice’ is a common notion associated with the energy choice theory. Following the same theoretical framework, this study aims to identify: (i) existing sources of energy (ii) the associated factors that determine a household choice of a particular source of energy. The study is based on primary data collected from 100 randomly selected households in two villages in northwest Pakistan. The study found that rural households, though having access to multiple sources of energy, persistently depend on biomass fuels for domestic energy consumption. Nonetheless, rural households exhibit inter-fuel switching according to changes in their socioeconomic conditions. The study concludes that income is not the only determinant of transition from traditional to more convenient forms of energy, other factors such as access to alternative energy sources and consumer preferences also account for a household energy choice.
Keywords: energy choice, energy-ladder, fuel-switching, fuel-stacking, Pakistan
Citedy By: 24
Causality between energy and economic growth in Pakistan: An application of co-integration and error-correction modelling techniques
[PDF] URL
Author: S Alam, MS Butt
Journal: Pacific and Asian Journal of Energy,Vol.22 (2), 2002--Pages  151-165
Abstract: This study investigates the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Pakistan, using a variety of econometric techniques and a sample of annual data covering the period 1960-98. The study found that the relevant macroeconomic aggregates are co-integrated by employing the Johensen and Jesulius technique. It detected a two-way casualty between energy consumption and economic growth in the long run. It also found that casualty ran from capital to energy consumption and from labour and capital to energy growth.
Keywords: energy consumption, error-correction modelling techniques
Citedy By: 21
Greener energy: Issues and challenges for Pakistan—wind power prospective
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: AW Bhutto, AA Bazmi, G Zahedi
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.20 (), 2013--Pages 519-538
Abstract: Energy is one of the essential inputs for economic development and industrialization. A reliable supply of energy is essential to maintain and to improve human being’s living conditions. The management of energy sources, rational utilization of energy, and renewable energy source usages are vital. Among the renewable energy sources wind energy is currently viewed as one of the most significant, fastest growing, and commercially attractive source to generate electrical energy because of the mature and cost effective energy conversation technology. Developing a utility-scale wind project is a complicated and time-consuming process which involves developers, landowners, utilities, the public and various local authorities. This article discusses the past, the present and the future of wind energy use in Pakistan. The efforts for the utilization of wind energy in the country are presented as well, along with barriers in its development. It is concluded that the potential exists, but significant efforts are needed to effectively make use of this cheap renewable energy source.
Keywords: Green energy; Wind energy; Sustainable development; Pakistan
Citedy By: 27
Hydropower use in Pakistan: past, present and future
[PDF] URL
Author: UK Mirza, N Ahmad, T Majeed, K Harijan
Journal: Renewable and and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.12 (6), 2008--Pages 1641-1651
Abstract: Energy is an essential ingredient of socio-economic development and economic growth. Electricity is a basic part of nature and it is one of the most widely used forms of energy. Hydropower is perceived as an environment-friendly, low-cost source of electricity that relies on proven technology. Pakistan has been an energy-deficient country historically. The installed electricity generation capacity is 19,547 MW presently out of which 6599 MW comes from hydropower. The identified hydropower potential in the country is approximately 41,722 MW. The Government is accordingly giving priority to hydropower generation projects in both public and private sectors. Recent power policies have attracted good response from private entrepreneurs. Several projects are in different stages of implementation. Micro-hydropower development in the northern part of the country is benefiting the previously under-privileged communities. This article presents an overview of hydropower development in Pakistan.
Keywords: Keywords: Hydropower; Renewable energy; Pakistan
Citedy By: 28
Renewable energy in Pakistan: policy strengths, challenges & the path forward
[PDF] ethz.ch
Author: M Yazdanie, PDT Rutherford
Journal: ETH Zurich,Vol. (), 2010--Pages 
Abstract: Today, only 55% of Pakistan’s population has access to electricity. The nation is currently facing a 3 GW power supply shortage - the most severe energy crisis to ever hit the country (Harijan, Uqaili and Memon 2008). The occurrence of prolonged and frequent power outages has had a negative impact on industry operation, the economy and the livelihood of citizens in general (Harijan, Uqaili and Memon 2008). While the energy shortage continues to grow, abundant indigenous sustainable energy resources such as wind, solar and biomass remain virtually untapped. The government attempted to promote the adoption of renewable energy technologies (RETs) in 2006 by implementing its first renewable energy policy. However, this policy has had limited success and faces a number of challenges. These policy challenges must be clearly identified and addressed in order to pave the way forward for a sustainable energy future in Pakistan. Currently, approximately 66% of power generation in Pakistan is derived from fossil fuels (primarily oil and gas) followed by hydroelectricity (30%) and nuclear energy (3%) (International Energy Agency 2007). Figure 1 below illustrates the shares of electricity generation by fuel type in 2007. The potential for renewable energy technologies to bridge the gap between energy supply and demand in Pakistan is significant. Renewable energy projects have the potential to improve energy security, provide socioeconomic benefits, reduce local pollution and mitigate climate change (Masud 2009). Further, due to the decentralized nature of renewable energy projects, they have the potential to provide electricity to remote and rural areas, thereby helping to alleviate poverty and reducing the need to collect and burn biomass fuel (Masud 2009). Solar, wind, biomass and hydro energy resources are widespread and abundant in Pakistan.
Keywords: renewable energy technologies, power supply shortage
Citedy By: 19
Pakistan: Energy Consumption and Economic Growth [with Comments]
[PDF] URL
Author: T Riaz, NH Stern
Journal: The Pakistan Development Review,Vol.23 (), 1984--Pages 431-456
Abstract: After the Arab oil embargo of 1973, oil prices rose rapidly and the energy-importing economies experienced an exogenously determined real supply shock, which, in most cases, led to a fall in their rates of economic growth and a corresponding rise in the rates of inflation. The energy system emerged as serious issue and the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth came into a sharp. The paper establishes Pakistan’s future energy demand which is consistent with the historical social and economic progress of the country and is un- constrained by the energy unavailability.
Keywords: exogenously determined real supply shock, energy-importing, Pakistan’s future energy demand
Citedy By: 23
Linking financial development, economic growth and energy consumption in Pakistan
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: R Komal, F Abbas
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.44 (), 2015--Pages 211–220
Abstract: This paper aims at exploring the finance–growth–energy nexus for Pakistan over the 1972–2012 period. By employing the system GMM estimation technique, the study tries to capture the impact of financial development over energy consumption through economic growth channel and includes energy prices and urbanization in the structural model. The study finds positive and significant impact of economic growth and urbanization on energy consumption, while the effect of energy prices over energy consumption is significant but negative. Financial development positively and significantly affects energy consumption through the economic growth channel. Our analysis is important for policy makers for effective energy demand planning and conservation policies that would ensure sustainable economic development as well as serve as motivation to search alternative energy sources to meet the bourgeoning energy demand in Pakistan.
Keywords: Energy consumption; Financial development; Economic growth GMM, Pakistan; Energy prices; Urbanization
Citedy By: 27
Water and energy resources of the Himalayan block: Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India
[PDF] URL
Author: CK Sharma - 1983
Journal: Sangeeta Sharma,Vol. (), 1983--Pages 
Abstract: Abstract missing
Keywords: keywords
Citedy By: 18
Energy crisis and potential of solar energy in Pakistan
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: HB Khalil, SJH Zaidi
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.31 (), 2014--Pages 194–201
Abstract: Energy is the basic need of modern life. Pakistan is an energy deficient country. Energy crisis is making bad impacts and destroying the economy. The current study investigates the relationship between the energy and demand supply in Pakistan. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the real reasons behind the current energy crisis. We want to find supplementary and alternate energy sources to cut down the load on the national energy mix. We select different areas and conduct our research and find the best possible renewable energy sources. In this paper we proposed the solution and best available indigenous resource in energy demanding areas.
Keywords: Energy crisis; Renewable Energy; Solar Energy
Citedy By: 23
Energy crisis in Pakistan
[PDF] URL
Author: N Haq, K Hussain
Journal: Islamabad Policy Research Institute Factfile,Vol. (), 2008--Pages 
Abstract: Abstract
Keywords: keywords
Citedy By: 14
Energy inputs and crop production in Western Pakistan
[PDF] URL
Author: MA Khan, G Singh
Journal: Energy,Vol.21 (1), 1996--Pages 45-53
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the patterns of enery use and their relationship with crop production on farms in the Dera Ismail Khan (D.I. Khan) District of the North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. A year-long survey of daily inputs of energy to more than 600 crop plots of 26 farms in seven villages was carried out. These represented both rainfed and irrigated farms operated by bullocks and tractors. Irrigation was provided by either canal or tube-wells. Data on energy inputs were recorded for crop-production operations through biweekly visits to the selected farms, for human labor, bullocks, electric motors, diesel engines and tractors. Applications of fertilizers and chemicals and the results of yields were recorded. On a per hectare basis, the use of tractors reduces the use of both human labor and bullocks on farms and increases the total energy consumption. Due to timely land preparation, yields of most of the crops were higher on tractor-operated farms than on bullock-operated farms. On rainfed farms, energy consumption was the lowest due to lack of a permanent source of irrigation. Floods destroyed the crops on certain plots, and therefore subsequent operations like harvesting were not performed. Canal-irrigated farms had higher cropping intensities and used more energy than rainfed farms. Per hectare consumption of energy was highest on tubewell-irrigated farms due to the high consumption of electrical or diesel energy for pumping.
Keywords: diesel energy for pumping, tubewell-irrigated farms , Energy inputs and crop production
Citedy By: 21
Prospects of renewable energy for meeting growing electricity demand in Pakistan
[PDF] URL
Author: MA Uqaili, K Harijan, M Memon.
Journal: AIP Conference Proceedings,Vol.53 (), 2007--Pages 
Abstract: Pakistan is an energy deficit country. About half of the country's population has access to electricity and per capita supply is only 520 kWh. Majority of the country's population resides in rural areas and most of them are yet without electricity. Conventional electricity generation includes 66.8% thermal, 30% hydel and 3.3% nuclear. It has been projected that electricity demand in Pakistan will increase in the range of 12 MTOE to 17 MTOE by the year 2018, at an average growth rate of about 5% to 7% and will require installed capacity of about 35 GW to 50 GW. Indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. Thermal power generation on the other hand also pollutes the environment. This paper presents the availability of renewables such as hydel, solar, wind and biomass energy, and their prospects for meeting growing electricity demand in Pakistan and subsequent contribution in air pollution abatement. The study concludes that there is substantial potential of these renewables and they have also bright prospects for meeting growing electricity demand in Pakistan.
Keywords: renewable energy, growing electricity demand
Citedy By: 11
Financial development and energy consumption: empirical evidence from Pakistan
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: ZK Kakar, BA Khilji, MJ Khan
Journal: International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance,Vol.2 (6), 2011--Pages 
Abstract: Even though a number of studies have attempted to determine the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth role of financial development has not been considered for efficient energy consumption. At present Pakistan is coping with a serious energy problem. This paper attempts to determine the nature of relationship between energy consumption, financial development and economic growth in Pakistan for the period 1980-2009 by employing co-integration and error correction techniques, finally Granger causality test is used to determine the direction of causality between financial development and energy consumption. The results indicate that financial development can be used as a useful measure to overcome energy problems by achieving efficiency in energy use
Keywords: Energy consumption, economic growth, financial development, co-integration, error correction, granger causality.
Citedy By: 22
Geology of Pakistan
[PDF] URL
Author: F Bender, HA Raza – 1995
Journal: schweizerbart.de,Vol. (), --Pages 
Abstract: "Geology of Pakistan" presents the first-ever monographic synopsis of the geology of Pakistan available to date. Pakistan is a large country (79600 sq. kilometers in size) with a complex structure, which reflects its location at the boundary of the Eurasian, Indo-Pakistan and Arabian plates. Collision of these plates in the Quaternary gave rise to some of the highest mountains in the world (Himalayas, Hindukush etc. ). Ten chapters, authoritatively written by the ten contributors, synthesize the information available on the geology and the natural resources of Pakistan presently. The formation of sedimentary basins in response to tectonic activity, their evolution and stratigraphy are discussed, as are the rich but largely unexplored hydrocarbon deposits which formed in these basins. Complex processes formed a wealth of mineral- and ore deposits, which have prompted prospection, exploration but also systematic scientific study from the 19th century on. The authors expand on all aspects of Pakistan’s geology, among them: regional geology, tectonic units, basin formation, paleogeographic evolution, formation and occurrence of metamorphic and igneous rocks, water resources, hydrocarbon deposits and potential, mineral resources, and even more, including the pedological characteristics of her soils. "Geology of Pakistan" provides the reader with a wealth of current data on Pakistan in the text, supplemented by more than 140 figures and a comprehensive list of literature references. The book also includes four full color Landsat images and three large-size (60x80 cm) color maps of the structure of the Western Fold Belt, constructed from Landsat-MSS imagery.
Keywords: Geology, rock, bituminous, Pakistan
Citedy By: 78
Greenhouse effect reduction by recovering energy from waste landfills in Pakistan
[PDF] URL
Author: Author. MJS Zuberi, SF Ali
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.44 (), 2015--Pages 117-131
Abstract: Landfills all around the world are one of the major sources that contribute towards global warming and climate change. Although landfilling should be prioritized last in the waste management hierarchy due to highest greenhouse gas emissions as compared to other waste management systems it is still very common around the world. In this study, methane emissions are estimated by applying First Order Decay model to landfills in Pakistan over the latest data available by Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency. Results demonstrate that nearly 14.18 Gg of methane is emitted from the landfills in Pakistan each year. By combusting this methane in the form of biogas collected from the landfills as a waste management scheme we can reduce greenhouse effect up to ~88%. Same percentage is observed when we apply the similar analysis over the potentially improved practice. Also, Pakistan is facing severe economic crises due to continuous increasing gap between energy demand and supply. Demand is increasing exponentially while supply is observed to remain constant over the last few years due to frozen capacity in spite of having significant renewable/alternate energy resources. Current electricity shortfall has reached up to 6000 MW. Present operational landfills in Pakistan can only contribute up to ~0.1% to cater the total deficit which does not make any significant difference but if 75% of the total waste generated today is collected and 50% of it landfilled then Pakistan has the potential to produce ~83.17 MW of power that can contribute up to 1.4% to overcome the current power shortage. The outcomes of this paper may also be applicable to other developing countries having similar resources.
Keywords: Landfills, Renewable energy, Biogas, Greenhouse effect, Pakistan
Citedy By: 22
Starved for energy, Pakistan braces for a water crisis
[PDF] URL
Author: S Masood
Journal: NY Times,Vol. (), 2015--Pages 
Abstract: Abstact
Keywords: Key workds
Citedy By: 0
Factors affecting commercial energy consumption in Pakistan: Progress in energy
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: K Zaman, MM Khan, M Ahmad
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy,Vol.19 (), 2013--Pages 107-135
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify major macroeconomic factors that enhance energy consumptionfor Pakistan through the cointegration, error correction model and Granger causality tests over a32-year time period, i.e., between 1980 and 2011. The study employed the bivariate cointegrationtechnique to estimate the long-run relationship between the variables; an error correction model wasused to determine the short-run dynamics of the system, while Granger causality test was used to findthe directions between these variables. The study investigates the relation between four energyconsumption variables (i.e., oil/petroleum consumption, gas consumption, electricity consumption andcoal consumption) and four macroeconomic factors which have further sub-classifications, i.e., balanceof payment (BOP) factors (i.e., exports, imports, trade deficit, worker’s remittances and current accountbalance), fuel factors (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions, natural resource depletion and net forestdepletion), agricultural crops yield per hectare (i.e., wheat, rice, sugarcane, maize and cotton) andindustrial production items (i.e., beverages, cigarettes, motor tyres, motor tubes, cycle tyres and cycletubes) in order to manage robust data analysis. The result confirms the long-run relationship betweentotal commercial energy consumption and macroeconomic factors in Pakistan, as oil/petroleumconsumption increases exports, fuel factors, agricultural crops yield per hectare and industrial items;however, the intensity of these factors are different in nature. Carbon dioxide emissions, net forestdepletion, beverages, motor tyres and motor tubes are more elastic with oil/petroleum consumption.However, oil/petroleum consumption decreases trade deficit and workers’ remittances in Pakistan. Gas,electricity and coal consumption increases agricultural crops yield per hectare and industrial produc-tion which shows that as agriculture and industry modernizes, energy demand increases. Energizingthe food production chain is an essential feature of agricultural development which is a prime factor inhelping to achieve food security in Pakistan. The empirical results only moderately support theconventional view that energy consumption has significant long-run casual effect on macroeconomic variables in Pakistan. The present study finds evident of unidirectional causality between thecommercial energy consumption factors and macroeconomic factors in Pakistan. However, there issome bidirectional causality exist which is running between electricity consumption (EC) and exports,EC to imports, EC to carbon emissions, EC to natural resource depletion (NRD) and EC to wheat. Theresults conclude that macroeconomic variables tend to positively respond to total primary energyconsumption. This indicates that increasing total commercial energy consumption may cause growthvariables which show that Pakistan is an input-driven economy
Keywords: Commercial energy consumption, Oil consumption, Gas consumption, Electricity consumption, Coal consumption, Fuel factors,Pakistan
Citedy By: 22
Assessment of present conventional and non-conventional energy scenario of Pakistan
[PDF] URL
Author: ZA Nayyar, NA Zaigham, A Qadeer
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.31 (), 2014--Pages 543-553
Abstract: It has become the universal fact that the energy is one of the key factors for the smooth and faster upgradation of the socio-economic activities in any country. In Pakistan's history of over 60 years, the country presently is facing possibly the worst energy crisis that has geared back the socio-economic development below the level of critical sustainability and tolerance of the people. Every walk of life and industrial activities have declined due to long electricity shut-down every day since last few years. In view to access the current status of available energy resources, the present research study has been carried out to review and assess the demography of the country versus energy sectors, energy supplies & consumptions, status of fossil-fuel resources (oil, gas & coal), conventional & non-conventional electricity generation, and past, present & future energy demand-supply during 2001–2011. The results of this assessment indicate that conventional resources in Pakistan are and will not be enough to meet the ever growing energy demand and consequently highlight the importance of the renewable energy sources that are apparently encouraging in the country but have not been developed to any satisfaction. Priority is imperative to be given for the adequate development of renewable energy sectors in addition to the present energy mix.
Keywords: Energy scenario, Primary energy supplies, Energy consumptions, Electricity demand vs supply, Renewable energy sources, Pakistan
Citedy By: 17
Environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in Pakistan: cointegration and Granger causality
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: M Shahbaz, HH Lean, MS Shabbir
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.16 (5), 2012--Pages 2947-2953
Abstract: The paper is an effort to fill the gap in the energy literature with a comprehensive country study of Pakistan. We investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth and trade openness in Pakistan over the period of 1971–2009. Bounds test for cointegration and Granger causality approach are employed for the empirical analysis. The result suggests that there exists a long-run relationship among the variables and the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is supported. The significant existence of EKC shows the country's effort to condense CO2 emissions and indicates certain achievement of controlling environmental degradation in Pakistan. Furthermore, we find a one-way causal relationship running from economic growth to CO2 emissions. Energy consumption increases CO2 emissions both in the short and long runs. Trade openness reduces CO2 emissions in the long run but it is insignificant in the short run. In addition, the change of CO2 emissions from short run to the long span of time is corrected by about 10% yearly.
Keywords: CO2 emissions, Energy consumption, Trade openness
Citedy By: 162
The relationship between agricultural technology and energy demand in Pakistan
[PDF] URL
Author: K Zaman, MM Khan, M Ahmad, R Rustam
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol.44 (), 2012--Pages 268-279
Abstract: The purpose of this study was two fold: (i) to investigate the casual relationship between energy consumption and agricultural technology factors, and (ii) electricity consumption and technological factors in the agricultural sector of Pakistan. The study further evaluates four alternative but equally plausible hypotheses, each with different policy implications. These are: (i) Agricultural technology factors cause energy demand (the conventional view), (ii) energy demand causes technological factors, (iii) There is a bi-directional causality between the two variables and (iv) Both variables are causality independent. By applying techniques of Cointegration and Granger causality tests on energy demand (i.e., total primary energy consumption and electricity consumption) and agricultural technology factors (such as, tractors, fertilizers, cereals production, agriculture irrigated land, high technology exports, livestock; agriculture value added; industry value added and subsides) over a period of 1975–2010. The results infer that tractor and energy demand has bi-directional relationship; while irrigated agricultural land; share of agriculture and industry value added and subsides have supported the conventional view i.e., agricultural technology cause energy consumption in Pakistan. On the other hand, neither fertilizer consumption and high technology exports nor energy demand affect each others. Government should form a policy of incentive-based supports which might be a good policy for increasing the use of energy level in agriculture.
Keywords: Energy demand, Agricultural technology, Pakistan
Citedy By: 20
Greener energy: Issues and challenges for Pakistan-hydel power prospective
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: AW Bhutto, AA Bazmi, G Zahedi
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.16 (5), 2012--Pages 2732-2746
Abstract: Water is a vital resource that supports all forms of life on earth. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) from increasing energy-intensive industries has eventually caused human civilization to suffer. During the past two decades, the risk and reality of environmental degradation have become more apparent. Renewable Energy provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view while hydropower, a major source of energy in the, appears an important renewable source of energy, its viability for large-scale energy production. Hydropower is renewable, reliable, clean, and largely carbon-free, and represents a flexible peak-load technology. With most of the world's hydropower potential available for near future development, it is local interests and sovereign states that decide how to manage their water resource base. In Pakistan the availability of power had been continually falling short of the demand of 24,474 MW and as a result, the country is experiencing power shortages of varying degrees in different parts of the country. Geographically, Pakistan has been blessed with river flows that are naturally supportive to electricity generation. Considering the large potential and the intrinsic characteristics of hydropower in promoting the country's energy security and flexibility in system operation, government is tried to accelerate hydropower development through number of policy initiatives. This paper investigates the progress and challenges for hydel power generation in Pakistan according to the overall concept of sustainable development and identifies the region wise potential of hydel power in Pakistan, its current status. Barriers are examined and Policy issue and institutional roles and responsibilities are discussed.
Keywords: Green energy, Hydral energy, Mini-hydral, Sustainable development, Pakistan
Citedy By: 22
A Stochastic Approach to Thermal Comfort--Occupant Behavior and Energy Use in Buildings.
[PDF] URL
Author: JF Nicol, MA Humphreys
Journal: ASHRAE Transactions,Vol.110 (2), 2004--Pages 554-568
Abstract: This paper presents the results of surveys of the use of simple controls--opening of windows, the closing of window blinds, and the use of lighting, heaters, and fans--by building occupants. Information is also presented on the use of air conditioning in mixed-mode buildings. The surveys were conducted in the UK, Pakistan, and throughout Europe. The data are analyzed to show how the use of each control varies with outdoor temperature. The paper discusses the application of such results to the simulation of occupied buildings.
Keywords: Energy use in buildings, air conditioning, thermal comfort
Citedy By: 163
Effect of updated WIMSD libraries on neutron energy spectrum at irradiation site of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 using 3D modeling
[PDF] um.ac.ir
Author: N Ahmad
Journal: Annals of Nuclear Energy,Vol.32 (5), 2005--Pages 521-548
Abstract: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recently released new WIMSD libraries based on current cross-section evaluations. Using these libraries the effect of different evaluated data sets on effective multiplication factor and neutron energy spectrum was studied with the help of 3D reactor simulation code CITATION. Simulation methodology adopted in this work was validated by analyzing IAEA 10 MW benchmark reactor. The keff values obtained using all newly released libraries are within 0.45% to the experimental value, while the old library released in 1981 resulted in calculated value 1.05% larger than experimental. The flux spectrum obtained for standard fuel element using 3D modeling is smaller in fast energy range and higher in thermal energy range than is calculated using the 1D model for the standard cell. In the flux trap, differences of about −4% to 13% were found in thermal flux using the newly released libraries as compared to that obtained using 1981 WIMSD library. The major differences in the flux spectra between newly available libraries and the 1981 WIMSD library in thermal energy range are due to the differences in cross-sections of hydrogen bound-in-water. The use of only newly available cross-sections of hydrogen bound-in-water with 1981 WIMSD library resulted in significant improvement in value of keff as well as in the flux spectrum. Moreover the differences among new libraries in the thermal energy range are also due to these cross-sections. Difference in fission spectra from different libraries is responsible for differences of flux spectra in the fast energy range. These differences in flux are reduced significantly in the fast energy range by only replacement of fission spectra.
Keywords: Nuclear Energy, neutron energy spectrum , standard fuel element
Citedy By: 20
Energy use for economic growth: cointegration and causality analysis from the agriculture sector Pakistan
[PDF] URL
Author: K Mushtaq, F Abbas, A Ghafoor
Journal: The Pakistan Development Review,Vol.46 (4), 2008--Pages 12--14
Abstract: Economic growth is energy-intensive. Nonetheless, in developing countries like Pakistan, the present energy use in agriculture is not strictly commensurate with energy consumption trends in developed countries. Sharp increases in energy prices have serious implications for the agrarian economy of Pakistan. This study implies the Johansen's co-integration approach and Granger causality to check the degree of integration and the direction of causality among different economic time series for the period 1972-2005. It is found that all the series are first-differenced stationary and there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship among concerned variables. The Granger causality test result suggests that unidirectional causality is running from GDP to oil consumption; electricity to GDP; while neutrality exists for gas and GDP. The implications of this study are that any future growth in the agriculture sector will increase the demand for oil, and if government improves the infrastructure and subsidises rural and agricultural electricity, it would significantly enhance agricultural share of GDP.
Keywords: growth in the agriculture sector, agricultural electricity ,economic growth
Citedy By: 21
Energy use in mountain areas: Trends and patterns in China, India, Nepal and Pakistan
[PDF] agris.fao.org
Author: K Rijal – 1999
Journal: agris.fao.org,Vol. (), --Pages 
Abstract: This publication summarizes the main findings of a set of studies on energy use patterns in the HKH region carried out in four countries separately, namely, China, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. The results of the studies were used to prepare energy balance tables for the HKH Region of each country and to identify issues emerging concerning energy use. The issues identified were: prevailing unsustainable trends in energy supply and demand in the mountains; inharmonious energy transitions, on the one hand towards non-monetized, low quality energy form and on the other towards non-renewable fossil fuels; wrong choice of energy resources and technologies as a result of a perspective related to both quality and quantity of energy in programme design; ignorance of the bio-physical aspects of mountain areas; weak gender participation; lack of understanding of socio cultural issues; lack of a suitable institutional framework to promote decentralized renewable energy technologies; and the methodological dilemma of internalizing environmental concerns. The publication also proposes a four-pronged strategy for sustainable energy development in the mountains. First, programmes must be geared towards increasing wood resources on a large scale and to upgrading the quality of biomass fuels in order to meet cooking and heating needs. Second, energy policies for mountain areas should emphasize new and renewable decentralized resources and technologies (via rural electrification or motive power generation), not only in order to sustain and increase economic activities but also to reduce human drudgery, particularly that of women and children. Third, efficient energy technologies should be promoted to facilitate improvements in the physical quality of life and achieve a significant reduction in health hazards. Fourth, large-scale development of hydropower should be initiated, in order to generate revenue for alleviating the existing poverty of mountain communities and to develop social and physical infrastructures suitable for these communities. At the same time, care must be taken not only to internalize the associated environmental costs into these projects, but also to ensure that such development results in the overall development of mountain areas.
Keywords: energy use patterns, mountain areas, energy policies, energy technologies
Citedy By: 16
How warm is the corporate response to climate change? Evidence from Pakistan and the UK
[PDF] URL
Author: HK Jeswani, W Wehrmeyer
Journal: Business Strategy and the Environment,Vol.17 (1), 2008--Pages 46–60
Abstract: In response to growing consensus among scientists and governments to act fast to avoid dangerous impacts of climate change, many industries have started to prepare for a carbon-constrained world. However, this response is far from being uniform. Often action is predicated on economic, technological, organizational and institutional drivers and barriers, which vary between countries and across industrial sectors. In order to understand the effectiveness of industry response, it is therefore important to analyse corporate response across different sectors in different countries. Focusing on the nine most energy-intensive and greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting industrial sectors, this paper compares corporate responses to climate change in Pakistan and the UK. By analysing the divergence of strategies adopted by industries across different sectors in two countries, the paper examines the key factors influencing corporate adoption and implementation of GHG reduction and energy-efficiency strategies in Pakistan and the UK.
Keywords: energy-efficiency strategies, UK, Pakistn, climate change
Citedy By: 167
Distribution of global insolation over Pakistan
[PDF] URL
Author: IA Raja, JW Twidell
Journal: Solar Energy,Vol.44 (2), 1990--Pages 63-71
Abstract: There are only five observatories measuring global insolation in Pakistan, which cannot represent the solar climate of the country. However 37 observatories, distributed fairly well over the entire country, record sunshine. Therefore insolation-sunshine empirical
Keywords: Record sunshine, insolation-sunshine empirical, global insolation
Citedy By: 43
Natural gas consumption and economic growth in Pakistan
[PDF] URL
Author: M Shahbaz, HH Lean, A Farooq
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.18 (), 2013--Pages 87-9
Abstract: Natural gas is a dominant fuel in Pakistan. It offers the cheapest and a cleaner alternative source of energy. This paper examines the relationship of natural gas consumption and economic growth in Pakistan. We include capital, labor and exports in the model with multivariate framework. The ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration and innovative accounting approach are employed to investigate the dynamic causality relationships among the variables. We find the existence of long-run relationship among the variables. Natural gas consumption, capital, labor and exports are positively affecting economic growth in Pakistan. Furthermore, we support the natural gas consumption-led-growth hypothesis and suggest that natural gas conservation policies may retard economic growth.
Keywords: Natural gas consumption, Economic growth, Pakistan
Citedy By: 72
An overview of energy status and development in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115002828
Author: Omer Rauf, Shujie Wang, Peng Yuan & Junzhe Tan
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.48 (), 2015--Pages 892-931
Abstract: Energy is the basic necessity for life and a key factor to excel a country’s economy. Pakistan despite being richly blessed with natural energy resources is dependent on foreign sources and is currently facing severe energy deficiency. At the time of its independence in 1947, Pakistan inherited 60 MW of power. The energy sector had made some progress in the beginning but unfortunately, the growth in positive curve couldn’t last long. The dilemma of the ever increasing gap between demand and supply has rendered Pakistan an energy deficient country where most the people have none or limited access to electricity. This paper gives an overview of the energy status of Pakistan. In this paper, I have discussed (a) major aspects of energy sector of Pakistan—its establishment, history and accomplishments, (b) various institutions for energy generation and distribution, (c) total installed and generation capacity, (d) current energy reserves in the country such as coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, as well as the renewable energy resources which include wind energy, biogas, Hydel energy, geothermal energy, solar energy, tidal and wave energy, (e) current energy crisis in the power sector, discussing the key issues leading to the origin, causes and consequences of the problem. The paper also presents; (f) possible solutions to overcome this crisis which is becoming hazardous for the country’s economy. The various government, semi-government and private organizations and their efforts to resolve the situation of energy deficit and (g) renewable energy can provide an alternative form of energy, why and how it can provide better replacement of other forms of energy, barriers that halt progress in this area and various renewable energy projects have also been illustrated. The goals, principles and impacts of the National Power Policy—2013 is also mentioned in this paper.
Keywords: Electrical power energy, Energy crisis, Electricity generation, Renewable energy resources, Current power sector in Pakistan
Citedy By: 10
Measuring production efficiency of small firms in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X97001228
Author: Abid A.Burki, DekTerrell
Journal: World Development,Vol.26 (1), 1998--Pages 155-169
Abstract: This paper examines the efficiency of small manufacturing firms in Gujranwala, Pakistan. In the first step of the study, we construct measures of technical and scale efficiency for a sample of 153 small manufacturing firms from nine industries. The second step includes Tobit regressions of these measures on attributes of the firm and entrepreneur to examine sources of firm efficiency. Results reveal that newer firms, firms run by entrepreneurs with at least primary education, and firms engaging in production subcontracting appear more efficient and that many firms operate at less than the optimal scale.
Keywords: efficiency, entrepreneur, data envelopment analysis
Citedy By: 99
Energy crisis, greenhouse gas emissions and sectoral growth reforms: Repairing the fabricated mosaic
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652615011063
Author: Muhammad Imran Qureshi, Amran Md.Rasli & Khalid Zaman
Journal: Journal of Cleaner Production,Vol.112 (5), 2016--Pages 3657-3666
Abstract: The study examined energy crisis and sought solutions for reforms in the largest regions of the world i.e. East Asia & Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America & the Caribbean, South Asia, and Sub Saharan Africa. The study used number of growth related factors over the period of 1975–2012. The results indicate significant relationship between electric power shortage and growth related specific factors; however, the intensity for each factor varies from region to region. The results of Granger causality verify multiple cause-effect channels in the different regions i.e. feedback hypothesis, economic factors driven electric shortage; electric shortage driven economic factors and no causal relationship between the variables. The results of variance decomposition analysis indicate that greenhouse gas emissions exhibit the largest contribution due to shortages in the electric power transmission. The study opens the debate for environmentalists, government and non-government officials to formulate the sustainable policies related to energy reforms.
Keywords: Energy shortage, Access to electricity, Greenhouse gas emissions, Agriculture value added, Industry value-added, World's regions
Citedy By: 34
Neutronic analysis for core conversion (HEU–LEU) of Pakistan research reactor-2 (PARR-2)
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306454908000303?via%3Dihub
Author: Mahmood, Tayyab; Pervez, Showket; Iqbal, Masood
Journal: Annals of Nuclear Energy,Vol.35 (8), 2008--Pages 1440-1446
Abstract: Neutronic analyses for the core conversion of Pakistan research reactor-2 (PARR-2) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel has been performed. Neutronic model has been verified for 90.2% enriched HEU fuel (UAl4–Al). For core conversion, UO2 fuel was chosen as an appropriate fuel option because of higher uranium density. Clad has been changed from aluminum to zircalloy-4. Uranium enrichment of 12.6% has been optimized based on the design basis criterion of excess reactivity 4 mk in miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR). Lattice calculations for cross-section generation have been performed utilizing WIMS while core modeling was carried out employing three dimensions option of CITATION. Calculated neutronic parameters were compared for HEU and LEU fuels. Comparison shows that to get same thermal neutron flux at inner irradiation sites, reactor power has to be increased from 30 to 33 kW for LEU fuel. Reactivity coefficients calculations show that doppler and void coefficient values of LEU fuel are higher while moderator coefficient of HEU fuel is higher. It is concluded that from neutronic point of view LEU fuel UO2 of 12.6% enrichment with zircalloy-4 clad is suitable to replace the existing HEU fuel provided that dimensions of fuel pin and total number of fuel pins are kept same as for HEU fuel.
Keywords: Neutronic analysis, Research reactor-2, Pakistan, Conversion
Citedy By: 19
The potential of solar powered transportation and the case for solar powered railway in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032114004778
Author: Syed Husain Imran Jaffery, Mushtaq Khan, Liaqat Ali, Hassan Abbas Khan, Riaz Ahmad Mufti,Ashfaq Khan, Nawar Khan,Syed M Jaffery
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.39 (), 2014--Pages 270-276
Abstract: The growth of a country can be gaged directly from its growing demand for energy. If the demand for energy is not met in-time then it would severely hamper growth leading to economic meltdown and collapse. Pakistan is a developing economy with a vast potential for industrialization. However, the ever increasing energy deficit faced by the country has led to a severe economic slowdown. Apart from the industrial demand for electricity, transport sector is also a major consumer of energy in the country. This research, keeping in view the importance of transport sector as well as its energy requirements, proposes to utilize solar energy for the development of a solar powered railway transport system in the country. For this purpose, the solar energy potential of Pakistan has been evaluated and a case study for solar powered vehicles is presented, with an aim of utilizing renewable energy resources within the country.
Keywords: Solar energ, yTransport, Renewable energy
Citedy By: 15
The energy release in great earthquakes
[PDF] http://gps-prod-storage.cloud.caltech.edu.s3.amazonaws.com/people_personal_assets/kanamori/HKjgr77.pdf
Author: Hiroo Kanamori
Journal: Journal of Geophysical Research, Solid Earth and Planets ,Vol.82 (20), 1977--Pages 2981–2987
Abstract: The conventional magnitude scale M suffers saturation when the rupture dimension of the earthquake exceeds the wavelength of the seismic waves used for the magnitude determination (usually 5–50 km). This saturation leads to an inaccurate estimate of energy released in great earthquakes. To circumvent this problem the strain energy drop W (difference in strain energy before and after an earthquake) in great earthquakes is estimated from the seismic moment M0. If the stress drop Δσ is complete, W = W0 = (Δσ/2μ)M0 ∼ M0/(2×104), where μ is the rigidity; if it is partial, W0 gives the minimum estimate of the strain energy drop. Furthermore, if Orowan's condition, i.e., that frictional stress equal final stress, is met, W0 represents the seismic wave energy. A new magnitude scale Mw is defined in terms of W0 through the standard energy-magnitude relation log W0 = 1.5Mw + 11.8. Mw is as large as 9.5 for the 1960 Chilean earthquake and connects smoothly to Ms (surface wave magnitude) for earthquakes with a rupture dimension of about 100 km or less. The Mw scale does not suffer saturation and is a more adequate magnitude scale for great earthquakes. The seismic energy release curve defined by W0 is entirely different from that previously estimated from Ms. During the 15-year period from 1950 to 1965 the annual average of W0 is more than 1 order of magnitude larger than that during the periods from 1920 to 1950 and from 1965 to 1976. The temporal variation of the amplitude of the Chandler wobble correlates very well with the variation of W0, with a slight indication of the former preceding the latter. In contrast, the number N of moderate to large earthquakes increased very sharply as the Chandler wobble amplitude increased but decreased very sharply during the period from 1945 to 1965, when W0 was largest. One possible explanation for these correlations is that the increase in the wobble amplitude triggers worldwide seismic activity and accelerates plate motion which eventually leads to great decoupling earthquakes. This decoupling causes the decline of moderate to large earthquake activity. Changes in the rotation rate of the earth may be an important element in this mechanism.
Keywords: Energy release, Earthquakes, Seismic waves
Citedy By: 1943
Status of biodiesel research and development in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032112002481
Author: Mohammed Harun Chakrabarti, Mehmood Ali, Jafar Nazir Usmani, Nasim Ahmed Khan
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.16 (7), 2012--Pages 4396-4405
Abstract: Performance of biodiesel in engines is well established and biodiesel is currently adjudged as a low carbon fuel with the most potential of replacing fossil fuels. The fossil fuel sources are dwindling in Pakistan resulting in the importation of about 8.1 million tonnes at approximately US$ 9.4 billion per annum. In the ambit of this justification, augmenting the energy scarce resources in Pakistan through the intense harnessing of the varied biodiesel sources can adequately address the deficiency and can ensure energy security. Towards this end, the progress attained in biodiesel related researchers in Pakistan are evaluated and presented with the view of highlighting ways of achieving the target set by the Government. A feedstock that drew less attention is spent triglycerides, and the little work reported by some organizations appeared promising. Now the onus is upon organizations such as the Alternative Energy Development Board and Pakistan State Oil to harness the research results from several indigenous Universities and develop a full-scale biodiesel economy in Pakistan.
Keywords: BiodieselPakistanAlternative energy development boardJatrophaPongame
Citedy By: 19
Residential energy demand: a case study of Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1108/eb002572
Author:  Mahmood Iqbal
Journal: Journal of Economic Studies,Vol.11 (1), 1984--Pages 40-48
Abstract: A model for household demand for energy in Pakistan is developed on the basis of stock of fuel‐consuming appliances and their rate of utilisation. Income and price elasticities of fuels are estimated by the OLS and GLS methods. These elasticities are found statistically significant and consistent with a priori knowledge of economic theory. Several policy implications are pointed out and suggestions are made for improvement in future estimation.
Keywords: Residential energy demand, Pakistan, household energy, OLS method, GLS methods
Citedy By: 5
Residential energy demand: a case study of Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1108/eb002572
Author:  Mahmood Iqbal
Journal: Journal of Economic Studies,Vol.11 (1), 1984--Pages 40-48
Abstract: A model for household demand for energy in Pakistan is developed on the basis of stock of fuel‐consuming appliances and their rate of utilisation. Income and price elasticities of fuels are estimated by the OLS and GLS methods. These elasticities are found statistically significant and consistent with a priori knowledge of economic theory. Several policy implications are pointed out and suggestions are made for improvement in future estimation.
Keywords: Residential energy demand, Pakistan, household energy, OLS method, GLS methods
Citedy By: 5
Characteristics of indoor/outdoor particulate pollution in urban and rural residential environment of Pakistan
[PDF] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0668.2009.00624.x/full
Author: Colbeck, Z. A. Nasir, Z. Ali
Journal: Indoor Air,Vol.20 (1), 2010--Pages 40–51
Abstract: : Particulate pollution has emerged as a serious environmental health concern in Pakistan. The use of biomass fuels in traditional stoves produces high levels of indoor air pollutants. In Pakistan, 94% of rural and 58% of urban households depend on biomass fuel. This study investigates variations in indoor/outdoor concentrations of particulate matter during various activities for three different micro-environments in Pakistan. At a rural site, the average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM10, PM2.5, and PM1, in kitchens using biomass fuels were 3.80, 4.36, and 4.11, respectively. A large variation was recorded in the mass concentration of particulate matter during cooking with concentrations in the range 4000–8555 μg/m3. In a living room at a rural site, the average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 were 1.74, 2.49, and 3.01, respectively. At the urban site, the average indoor/outdoor ratios for the same size fractions were 1.71, 2.88, and 3.47, respectively. Cooking, cleaning and smoking were identified as principal contributors to the high indoor levels of particulate matter. This study showed considerably high concentrations of particulate matter, particularly in kitchens using biomass fuels, as compared to living areas. Thus women and children face the greatest exposure due to the amount of time they spend in the kitchen.
Keywords: Indoor particulate pollution, outdoor particulate pollution, urban residential pollution, rural residential pollution, environmental health, Pakistan
Citedy By: 55
Coal consumption and economic growth revisited: structural breaks, cointegration and causality tests for Pakistan
[PDF] http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1260/0144-5987.30.3.499
Author: Saten Kumar, Muhammad Shahbaz
Journal: Energy Exploration & Exploitation,Vol.30 (3), 2012--Pages  499–522
Abstract: A global profusion of coal provides many countries with opportunities for economic growth. The direction of causality between coal consumption and economic growth is useful for policy making, however, existing empirical evidence have failed to reach a consensus. This paper examined the liaison between coal consumption and economic growth for Pakistan over the period 1971–2009. The endogenous two-break LM unit root test, derived in Lee and Strazicich (2003), is used to assess the order of integration of the variables and structural breaks in the data series. Application of the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test reveals a cointegrating relationship between real income, real capital stock, labour and coal consumption, and further application of general to specific (GETS), Engle and Granger (EG), Stock Watson's dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) and Phillip Hansen's fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) methods show statistical robustness of the estimates. The elasticity with respect to coal consumption is positive and significant. The vector error correction model (VECM) based Granger causality test and innovative accounting procedures (variance decomposition and impulse response functions) are also applied.
Keywords: Coal consumption, economic growth, causality tests, Pakistan
Citedy By: 14
Techno-economic comparison between B10 of Eruca sativa L. and other indigenous seed oils in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0957582010001151
Author: MH Chakrabarti, M Ali, S Baroutian
Journal: Process Safety and Environmental Protection,Vol.89 (3), 2011--Pages 165-171
Abstract: Eruca sativa L. (known as taramira in South Asia) oil biodiesel shows good fuel properties when tested against ASTM D 6751 standard. Environmental performance of taramira oil B10 (10% (v/v) biodiesel blends with mineral diesel fuel, which is based upon the target set by the Government of Pakistan for 2025) in terms of engine exhaust emissions of CO2, CO, SO2, NOX and PM10 is compared with jatropha, castor and canola oil B10 fuels and found to be better. However, its calorific value is low thus resulting in poor engine performance in comparison to other B10 fuels. In addition, due to the high cost of taramira oil at present, it is not economical to produce in comparison to jatropha biodiesel. Study suggested that these drawbacks may be circumvented by growing taramira plants on large scale on marginal lands across South Asian countries and conducting further research to increase its calorific value.
Keywords: B10,Taramira,High speed diesel (HSD) fuel,Castor,Jatropha
Citedy By: 20
Distribution of wind power resource over Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/096014819290075E
Author: SM Nasir, SM Raza, IA Raja
Journal: Renewable Energy,Vol.2 (4-5), 1992--Pages 411-420
Abstract: The synthesis and presentation of the wind data are required to establish the wind resource climatology for an area. In this respect, wind contour maps are essential to visualize and quantify the variation of wind speed over the country. Using the average data from 59 locations, iso-wind speed contours are drawn by constructing monthly and yearly maps. The most suitable period for utilizing wind potential is May–August. During this period, the country as a whole exhibits the best wind resource potential, with an average speed of about 3 m/s. (3 m/s average wind speed is very poor for wind power generation.) The most promising regions for exploiting wind power throughout the year are the coastline, lower Sind and north-western Balochistan.
Keywords: Wind power, Wind data, Pakistan
Citedy By: 7
Modelling electricity demand using the STAR (Smooth Transition Auto-Regressive) model in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544214011906
Author: Saima Nawaz , Nasir Iqbal, Saba Anwar
Journal: Energy,Vol.78 (), 2014--Pages 535-542
Abstract: This study attempts to estimate Pakistan's electricity demand by applying STAR (Smooth Transition Auto-Regressive) model. The covered study period is 41 years – from 1971 to 2012. The results show that the electricity demand follows a non-linear path if the real electricity price is used as a transition variable. We find that the average real price of electricity is below the optimal level. In addition, the electricity demand is primarily determined by the level of development. The forecast statistics reveal that for a presumed GDP (Gross Domestic Product) growth rate of 6 percent, the electricity demand would jump almost three folds in 2020 as compared to the demand in 2012. Owing to a weak relationship between electricity demand and its price, a strategy built on price escalation may not work towards curtailing demand. To meet the future electricity demand, the following measures are important: i) shifting energy mix from thermal to renewable ii) increasing power sector's efficacy iii) adopting an integrated institutional approach and iv) creating a culture of conservation and responsibility.
Keywords: Electricity, STAR, Pakistan
Citedy By: 10
Prospects of Pakistan–China Energy and Economic Corridor
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032116000277
Author: Faheemullah Shaikh, Qiang Ji, Ying Fan
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.59 (), 2016--Pages 253-263
Abstract: China׳s seaborne foreign oil supply through the Strait of Malacca is facing challenges, because of territorial disputes, pirate attacks and geopolitics. The Pakistan–China Energy and Economic Corridor (PCEEC) offers the option of constructing an oil pipeline to bypass the Strait of Malacca. This paper studied the prospects of the PCEEC in the context of the security of China׳s foreign oil supply chain. We assessed all the existing and proposed oil supply routes from the Middle East and Africa to China׳s border in terms of supply timeframes, costs, energy consumption and GHG emissions. We used weight-based model to estimate the CAPEX, OPEX and per barrel levelized cost of a proposed oil pipeline in the PCEEC. From economic, time, energy and environmental perspective, our assessment suggested that the construction of an oil pipeline in the PCEEC would be compatible with the existing routes and offer the shortest time for transporting oil to China׳s border. The PCEEC would offer numerous prospects for regional energy and economic connectivity for both countries and the region, including social, economic, commercial and geopolitical benefits.
Keywords: Oil supply challenges, Energy security, Pakistan–China Energy and Economic Corridor (PCEEC), Weight- based model, One Belt-One Road
Citedy By: 14
Impact assessment of global and national biofuels developments on agriculture in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261912008501
Author: Tariq Ali, Jikun Huang, Jun Yang
Journal: Applied Energy,Vol.104 (), 2013--Pages 466-474
Abstract: This research uses GTAP model to assess the expected future effects of national and global biofuels policies on agriculture markets and food prices in Pakistan. Our results show that by 2020, global mandates on biofuels will significantly affect the prices, production and trade of major feedstock crops such as sugarcane, maize, soybean and rapeseed, especially in the USA, Brazil and EU. Global biofuels developments are projected to increase the prices of maize, rapeseed, soybean, and sugarcane in Pakistan. Pakistan will benefit from improved trade balance in agriculture under the global-only scenario. Under Pakistan plus three-producer’s biofuels scenario, the price and production of sugarcane in Pakistan will increase substantially. Under this scenario, the country will face considerable loss in agricultural trade. Consequently, food-security of net-buyers may be threatened. The income of feedstock farmers will increase. Higher crude oil prices will strongly influence commodity markets via increased production of biofuels and agricultural production costs.
Keywords: Biofuels, Impact, Agriculture, costs,Pakistan
Citedy By: 13
Energy consumption and economic growth relationship: Evidence from panel data for low and middle income countries
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421510002612
Author: Ilhan Ozturk, Alper Aslan, Huseyin Kalyoncu
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol.38 (8), 2010--Pages 4422-4428
Abstract: This paper uses the panel data of energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (GDP) for 51 countries from 1971 to 2005. These countries are divided into three groups: low income group, lower middle income group and upper middle income group countries. Firstly, a relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is investigated by employing Pedroni (1999) panel cointegration method. Secondly, panel causality test is applied to investigate the way of causality between the energy consumption and economic growth. Finally, we test whether there is a strong or weak relationship between these variables by using Pedroni (2001) method. The empirical results of this study are as follows: i) Energy consumption and GDP are cointegrated for all three income group countries. ii) The panel causality test results reveal that there is long-run Granger causality running from GDP to EC for low income countries and there is bidirectional causality between EC and GDP for middle income countries. iii) The estimated cointegration factor, β, is not close to 1. In other words, no strong relation is found between energy consumption and economic growth for all income groups considered in this study. The findings of this study have important policy implications and it shows that this issue still deserves further attention in future research.
Keywords: Energy consumption, Economic growth,Panel data
Citedy By: 235
Solar mapping of Pakistan using visible images from geostationary satellites
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096014819700092X
Author: A.Q.Malik, A.Mufti, H.W.Hiser, N.T.Veziroglu
Journal: Renewable Energy,Vol.13 (1), 1998--Pages 1-16
Abstract: Solar maps of Pakistan have been prepared using visible data from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). The attenuation of solar radiation in the atmosphere has been also incorporated in the computer model. The data for this project were collected from INSAT satellite, which corresponds to 11:00 h local standard time.
Keywords: Geostationary staellits, solar mapping, Pakistan
Citedy By: 11
Water sharing between India and Pakistan: a critical evaluation of the Indus Water Treaty
[PDF] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02508060902902193
Author: Mary Miner,Gauri Patankar, Shama Gamkhar & 4th David J. Eaton
Journal: Water International,Vol.34 (2), 2009--Pages 
Abstract: For nearly 50 years a relatively stable Indus Water Treaty (IWT) moderated competition for the Indus water between Pakistan and India. Rising demand for water in each nation could unsettle this stable relationship, as foreshadowed by the involvement of a third party during 2005–2007 for the first time in the treaty's history. This paper discusses Pakistan and India's experience in the context of other international shared rivers. For the benefit of their people, Pakistan and India could coordinate unilateral development and resolve issues rather than defer them
Keywords: international shared rivers, India, Pakistan, Indus Water Treat, water sharing,
Citedy By: 24
Sustaining economic expansion in Pakistan in an era of energy shortfalls: growth options to 20351
[PDF] http://relooney.com/REL_Pubs/Rel-OPEC-07.pdf
Author: Robert Looney
Journal: OPEC Enrgy review,Vol.31 (2), 2007--Pages 125–157
Abstract: Pakistan's recent economic acceleration together with rapid rates of population growth is having a significant impact on the country's energy supply/demand balances. Energy supplies in turn affect the pace and pattern of the country's economic expansion. Drawing on the empirically-based complex links between energy and the economy, several alternative scenarios of growth and energy needs are developed in an attempt to answer several key questions. In particular, what are some of the key interrelationships between sources of energy demand and supply? What are the economic growth consequences of alternative energy availabilities and, in turn, how do these growth patterns affect the subsequent energy supply and demand patterns? What energy strategies are suggested by the interconnection between the country growth requirements and energy needs? Are these significantly modified under rising or falling energy prices? Based on this analysis, several guidelines are drawn for the country's future energy policy.
Keywords: energy shortfalls, economic expansion, energy supply/demand balances , Pakistan
Citedy By: 6
Government Investment and Follow-on Private Sector Investment in Pakistan, 1972-1995
[PDF] http://www.jed.or.kr/full-text/22-1/Looney.PDF
Author: RE Looney
Journal: JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT,Vol. (), 1997--Pages 
Abstract: The possibility that government investment can stimulate private sector investment has long been suggested. Until recently, an appropriate model to test for the relationship in developing countries has been absent. In 1984, Blejer and Khan developed and estimated a model for 24 developing countries between 1971 and 1979. They found that higher rates of investment took place when the private sector took a large role in capital formation. This paper estimates a similar model for one developing country, Pakistan, for the period 1972 to 1995. Our results are broadly similar to those obtained by Blejer and Khan and we suggest ways for the Pakistan government to stimulate the private sector by selective types of public investment.
Keywords: Government Investment, Private Sector Investment, Pakistan
Citedy By: 24
Environmental Kuznets curve and financial development in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115010989
Author: MuhammadJavid,FatimaSharif
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.54 (), 2016--Pages 406-414
Abstract: In this study, we analyzed the effects of financial development, per capita real income, the square of per capita real income, per capita energy consumption and openness on per capita CO2 emissions for Pakistan during 1972–2013. The bound F-test for cointegration yielded evidence of a long-term relationship among these variables. The results confirm the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve in Pakistan for both the short and long term. This finding indicates that at the initial stage of development, the level of CO2 increases with income, and after some threshold level of income, this relationship may change from positive to negative as more efficient infrastructure and energy-efficient technology are implemented during the development process of the country. The findings of this study also reveal a significantly positive sign for the coefficient of financial development, suggesting that financial development has occurred at the expense of environmental quality. The results further indicate that the key contributing factors to carbon emissions in Pakistan are income, energy consumption and financial development. In addition, the openness variable has no significant influence on carbon emission in either the short or long term.
Keywords: EKC, Energy, CO2, Kuznets curve, Pakistan
Citedy By: 20
A new crop yield forecasting model based on satellite measurements applied across the Indus Basin, Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880902000348
Author: Wim G.M.Bastiaanssen, SamiaAli
Journal: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment,Vol.94 (3), 2003--Pages 321-340
Abstract: Three existing models are coupled to assess crop development and forecast yield in the largest contiguous irrigation network in the world: the Indus Basin in Pakistan. Monteith’s model is used for the calculation of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR), the Carnegie Institution Stanford model is used for determining the light use efficiency, and the surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL) is used to describe the spatio-temporal variability in land wetness conditions. The new model requires a crop identification map and some standard meteorological measurements as inputs. The conversion of above ground dry biomass into crop yield has been calibrated through harvest indices and the values obtained are compared with the international literature. The computations were executed in a GIS environment using 20 satellite measurements of the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to cover an annual crop rotation cycle. The validation with district data revealed a root mean square error of 525, 616, 551 and 13,484 kg ha−1 for wheat, rice, cotton and sugarcane yield, respectively. The model performs satisfactorily for wheat, rice and sugarcane, and poorly for cotton. It is expected that the accuracy of the model applied to 1.1 km pixels decreases with the increasing number of crops occurring within a given pixel. Although AVHRR is basically too coarse a resolution for field scale crop yield estimations, the results provides yield predictions to policy makers in Pakistan with a spatial detail that is better than the traditional district level data. The gaps between the average and the maximum yield are 1075 and 1246 kg ha−1 for wheat and rice, respectively. Future work should rely on the integration of high and low resolution images to estimate field scale crop yields.
Keywords: Crop yield forecast, Early warning, Photosynthesis, Light use efficiency, NOAA–AVHRR
Citedy By: 310
Development of natural gas as a vehicular fuel in Pakistan: issues and prospects
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875510014000213
Author: Muhammad Imran Khan, TabassumYasmin
Journal: Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering,Vol.17 (), 2014--Pages 
Abstract: In a step towards adopting environment friendly fuel and to save foreign exchange, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) was introduced by the Government of Pakistan in the country in 1992. Due to available price differential between CNG and gasoline/diesel and investor friendly policy and regulatory framework, CNG sector has shown tremendous growth over the last ten year in the country. This growing demand of natural gas by CNG sector, results in gas shortages in the country. This paper describes the key steps in the development of CNG as transportation fuel in Pakistan. The present scenario of the CNG industry including the natural gas vehicles (NGVs) population growth and the expansion of CNG refilling stations are discussed. Various aspects of the CNG program in Pakistan, for example environmental benefits, economic benefits and problems associated with CNG industry of Pakistan are illustrated.
Keywords: CNG, Emissions, Vehicle, Fuel, Pakistan, Natural gas
Citedy By: 17
A review of the wind power developments in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115014331#!
Author: Samreen Siddique, Rashid Wazir
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.57 (), 2016--Pages 351-361
Abstract: Pakistan is among the 10 countries that face the worst energy crisis of the world. As the country struggles with a number of financial, political and social issues, the transition from a conventional fuels based economy to a green economy is not an easy one. Pakistan has been blessed with immense potential of clean renewable sources of solar, wind and biomass but they have not been exploited yet. Renewable energy technology sector has not penetrated the energy mix and is currently an emerging market. This paper highlights the steps the country has taken in the past and the steps that are being taken at present to emerge out of the prevailing energy crisis when even the most urban areas suffer from power outages of 12 h per day. Until 2009, no single grid interconnected wind farm existed but now the situation has changed considerably and wind farms contributing to the national grid are a reality now. Three grid interconnected farms have been inaugurated and many others are in pipeline. The national policy regarding wind power systems has recently changed after unexpected setbacks to ongoing projects. This paper reviews the developments in the wind power sector of the country and lists some suggestions that can help improve the wind power penetration in the national energy mix.
Keywords: Wind power, Renewable energy, Independent Power Producers (IPPs), Pakistan
Citedy By: 11
Pathways to reduce the environmental footprints of water and energy inputs in food production
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306919208001000
Author: S.Khan, M.A.Khan, M.A.Hanjra , J.Mu
Journal: Food Policy,Vol.34 (2), 2009--Pages 141-149
Abstract: With climate change and population growth, the pathways for reducing the environmental footprint of food production are increasingly sought, but poorly understood. This paper sketches the environmental footprints of water and energy use in food production systems. The main objective is to present an empirical application, to help identify the main pathways to reducing the footprints. The agricultural system of rice, wheat, and barley production on selected farms in the southern Murray Darling Basin in Australia is used as a case study. Further insights are gained through a review of the data published in pre eminent journals. Together the analysis indicates that boosting water productivity and improving energy use efficiency in crop production operations are the two possible pathways to reducing the environmental footprints of water and energy inputs in food production. These generic conclusions have implications for water, food and environment policy.
Keywords: Food security, Water productivity, Irrigation, Energy efficiency, Energy ratio
Citedy By: 126
Evaluation of arsenic and other physico-chemical parameters of surface and ground water of Jamshoro, Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304389408017627
Author: Jameel Ahmed Baig, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Muhammad Balal Arain, Hassan Imran Afridi
Journal: Journal of Hazardous Materials,Vol.166 (2-3), 2009--Pages 662-669
Abstract: Arsenic contamination in water has caused severe health problems around the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the geological and anthropogenic aspects of As pollution in surface and groundwater resources of Jamshoro Sindh, Pakistan. Hydride generator atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS) is employed for the determination of arsenic in water samples, with detection limit of 0.02 μg l−1. Arsenic concentrations in surface and underground water range from 3.0 to 50.0, and 13 to 106 μg l−1, respectively. In most of the water samples As levels exceeded the WHO provisional guideline values 10 μg l−1. The high level of As in under study area may be due to widespread water logging from Indus river irrigation system which causes high saturation of salts in this semi-arid region and lead to enrichment of As in shallow groundwater. Among the physico-chemical parameters, electrical conductivity, Na+, K+, and SO42− were found to be higher in surface and ground water, while elevated levels of Ca2+ and Cl− were detected only in ground water than WHO permissible limit. The high level of iron was observed in ground water, which is a possible source of As enrichment in the study area. The multivariate technique (cluster analysis) was used for the elucidation of high, medium and low As contaminated areas. It may be concluded that As originate from coal combustion at brick factories and power generation plants, and it was mobilized promotionally by the alkaline nature of the understudy groundwater samples.
Keywords: Arsenic, Cluster analysis, Ground water, Physico-chemical parameters, Surface water, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Citedy By: 93
Evaluation of arsenic and other physico-chemical parameters of surface and ground water of Jamshoro, Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304389408017627
Author: Jameel Ahmed Baig, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Muhammad Balal Arain, Hassan Imran Afridi
Journal: Journal of Hazardous Materials,Vol.166 (2-3), 2009--Pages 662-669
Abstract: Arsenic contamination in water has caused severe health problems around the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the geological and anthropogenic aspects of As pollution in surface and groundwater resources of Jamshoro Sindh, Pakistan. Hydride generator atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS) is employed for the determination of arsenic in water samples, with detection limit of 0.02 μg l−1. Arsenic concentrations in surface and underground water range from 3.0 to 50.0, and 13 to 106 μg l−1, respectively. In most of the water samples As levels exceeded the WHO provisional guideline values 10 μg l−1. The high level of As in under study area may be due to widespread water logging from Indus river irrigation system which causes high saturation of salts in this semi-arid region and lead to enrichment of As in shallow groundwater. Among the physico-chemical parameters, electrical conductivity, Na+, K+, and SO42− were found to be higher in surface and ground water, while elevated levels of Ca2+ and Cl− were detected only in ground water than WHO permissible limit. The high level of iron was observed in ground water, which is a possible source of As enrichment in the study area. The multivariate technique (cluster analysis) was used for the elucidation of high, medium and low As contaminated areas. It may be concluded that As originate from coal combustion at brick factories and power generation plants, and it was mobilized promotionally by the alkaline nature of the understudy groundwater samples.
Keywords: Arsenic, Cluster analysis, Ground water, Physico-chemical parameters, Surface water, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Citedy By: 93
RETRACTED: The relationship between agricultural technologies and carbon emissions in Pakistan: Peril and promise
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264999312001459#!
Author: Khalid Zaman, Muhammad Mushtaq Khan, Mehboob Ahmad , Bashir Ahmad Khilji
Journal: Economic Modelling,Vol.29 (5), 2012--Pages 1632-1639
Abstract: This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor and the Publisher. After a thorough investigation, the Publisher has concluded that the Editor was misled into accepting this article based upon the positive advice of at least one faked reviewer report. The report was submitted from a fictitious email account which was provided to the Editor by the corresponding author during the submission of the article. The corresponding author, Dr Zaman, wishes to admit sole responsibility and to state that his co-authors were not aware of his actions. This manipulation of the peer-review process represents a clear violation of the fundamentals of peer review, our publishing policies, and publishing ethics standards. Apologies are offered to the reviewers whose identities were assumed and to the readers of the journal that this deception was not detected during the submission process.
Keywords: fictitious email account , peer review
Citedy By: 15
Estimation of radiation doses associated with natural radioactivity in sand samples of the north western areas of Pakistan using Monte Carlo simulation
[PDF] https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10967-005-0835-1
Author: Khalid Khan, P. Akhter, S. D. Orfi
Journal: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry,Vol.265 (3), 2005--Pages 371–375
Abstract: Activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides, i.e., 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, were measured in sand samples of north western areas of Pakistan using gamma-spectrometry. The measured ranges of activity concentrations for 226Ra, 232 Th and 40K were 36.9-51.9, 52.5-67.6 and 680-784 Bq . kg-1, respectively. Associated external dose was calculated using Monte Carlo simulation technique. A theoretical model to determine the gamma dose rate at 1 m height from the sand was employed for calculation the mass attenuation coefficient and self absorption in sand slab for the gamma-energies of these radionuclides and their progeny. The weighted average values of the measured gamma dose rates were 3.3, 4.5 and 12.4 nGyh-1 for 226Ra, 232 Th and 40K, respectively, with effective dose of 0.022±0.004 mSv . y-1. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the sand slabs having more than 15 cm effective thickness contribute very little to the external gamma dose rate. The values of the external dose rate and annual effective dose were found to be much lower than the world average as well as from other countries of the world.
Keywords: radiation doses, natural radioactivity, sand samples, Pakistan, Monte Carlo simulation
Citedy By: 16
Oil prices and economic activity in Pakistan
[PDF] http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/139156141001100204
Author: Afia Malik
Journal: South Asia Economic Journal,Vol.11 (2), 2010--Pages 
Abstract: Oil price shocks have raised serious concerns among the policy makers around the world because of its adverse impacts for the net oil-importing economies. This article, based on the data from 1979–80 Q1 to 2007–08 Q2, analyzes the impact of rising oil prices along with the changing macro conditions on output. Oil prices and output are found to be strongly related, and to a great extent this relationship is non-linear. In addition, lower debt-GDP ratio, lower deficit spending, lower real effective exchange rate, and the existence of foreign exchange reserves and capital investment would cause output to rise. In Pakistan, besides making adjustments at the macro level, what is required is to make rational choices about the development of energy mix for the future to reduce the risk of oil price fluctuations in the global energy market.
Keywords: Oil prices, economic activity, Pakistan
Citedy By: 17
Energy crisis in Pakistan, adaptation and mitigation measures
[PDF] http://www.academia.edu/7259158/Energy_Crisis_in_Pakistan_Adaptation_and_Mitigation_Measures
Author: Abdul Ghafoor Bhatti, Abdul Rauf Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad Chaudhary
Journal: Journal of Faculty of Engineering & Technology,Vol.19 (1), 2012--Pages 
Abstract: Energy is part and parcel of every aspect of life as well as backbone of a country’s economy. Pakistan is lagging behind in this area despite of rich reserves of raw energy, but there is dire need for the investment and proper use of these reserves for driving the wheel of economy. Present energy scenario of the country, its available resources and their potential towards the solution are addressed in this paper. Statistical data in this work provides ease to policy makers in deciding major investment area to take the country towards prosperous future. A lot of partial projects like Independent Power Producers (IPPs) and Rental Power Plants (RPPs) have been made and invested but all in vain rather burden on economy. The sequence of investment field is also proposed which will pay back more in the long run.
Keywords: Energy crisis, Pakistan, adaptation measures , mitigation measures
Citedy By: 4
Indoor carbon monoxide and PM2. 5 concentrations by cooking fuels in Pakistan
[PDF] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0668.2008.00563.x/full
Author: A. R. Siddiqui, K. Lee, D. Bennett, X. Yang, K. H. Brown
Journal: Wiley Online Library,Vol. (), --Pages 
Abstract: Biomass, such as wood, crop residues and dung are used as cooking fuels by half of the world’s population; three-fourth of such use occurs in developing countries (Bruce et al., 2000). Biomass provides 70% of Pakistan’s domestic sector energy and 53% of the biomass energy is from wood (IUCN, 2003; Rehfuess et al., 2006). Typical traditional biomass stoves can divert up to 38% of fuel carbon into products of incomplete combustion, including carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, along with releasing other toxic substances, including nitric oxides, sulfur dioxide, and formaldehyde (Bruce et al., 2000; Smith et al., 2000;Zhang and Smith, 2005).Indoor air pollution from biomass fuel is the 8th most important risk factor, responsible for 2.7% of the global burden of disease (Smith et al., 2004). In high-mortality developing countries, indoor smoke is responsible for an estimated 3.7% of the overall disease burden, making it the most lethal killer after malnutrition, unsafe sex and lack of safe water, and sanitation (Smith et al., 2004). The overall disease burden (Disability-Adjusted Life Years or DALYs) from indoor air pollution in developing countries is more than five times greater than the burden from outdoor air pollution (Smith et al., 2004). Women and young children in developing countries are particularly at risk of being exposed to high concentration of indoor air pollutants, because they spend the most time in the home during fuel burning. Well-established health outcomes related to indoor biomass burning include acute lower respiratory infections in children up to 5 years and chronic obstructive lung disease in adults (Bruce et al., 2000). Evidence is emerging that exposure to biomass burning increases the risk of other conditions, such as tuberculosis, asthma, cataracts, low birth weight, and peri-natal mortality (Bruce et al., 2000).Increased indoor air pollution can occur because of poor air mixing in the stove, especially when the stove is not well-ventilated, with concentrations of CO and PM often exceeding the ambient air quality standards set by the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and World Health Organization (WHO) standards for CO and EPA standard for PM <2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5; von Schirnding et al., 2002). Various studies for wood burning have found high indoor levels of CO and PM2.5 in Guatemala (Bruce et al., 2000; Naeher et al., 2001), CO in rural Pakistan (Khushk et al., 2005), PM2.5 in rural Mexico (Brauer et al., 1996), PM <10 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in rural Bolivia (Albalak et al., 1999), suspended particle matter in India (Lohdi and Zain-al-Abdin, 1999), and respirable particulate (50% cut-off at 4 μm) levels in India (Balakrishnan et al., 2004).The present study was a part of a larger study that evaluated prenatal exposure to cooking with wood fuel and adverse infant birth outcomes in a cohort of women living in southern semi-rural areas of Pakistan (Siddiqui et al., 2008). The purpose of this study was to measure and compare daytime indoor air concentrations of CO and PM2.5 in kitchens where wood or natural gas (NG) was used as cooking fuel. Additionally, the associations of housing characteristics and cooking patterns with indoor CO and PM2.5 concentrations were determined.
Keywords: Indoor carbon monoxide, indoor air pollution, cooking fuels, Pakistan, indoor biomass burning
Citedy By: 79
Environmental Kuznets curve in Romania and the role of energy consumption
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032112005540
Author: Muhammad Shahbaz, Mihai Mutascu, Parvez Azim
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.18 (), 2013--Pages 165-173
Abstract: The aim of present study is to probe the dynamic relationship between economic growth, energy consumption and CO2emissions for period of 1980–2010 in case of Romania. In doing so, ARDL bounds testing approach is applied to investigate the long run cointegration between these variables. Our results confirm long run relationship between economic growth, energy consumption and energy pollutants. The empirical evidence reveals that Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is found both in long-and-short runs in Romania. Further, energy consumption is major contributor to energy pollutants. Democratic regime shows her significant contribution to decline CO2 emissions through effective implementation of economic policies and financial development improves environment i.e., reduces CO2 emissions by redirecting the resources to environment friendly projects.
Keywords: Economic growth, Energy consumption, Environment
Citedy By: 118
Tolerated noise levels in the U.K. and Pakistan and simultaneous thermal comfort
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0960148194901260
Author: M.Wilson, J.F.Nicol
Journal: Renewable Energy,Vol.5 (5-8), 1994--Pages 1006-1008
Abstract: External noise is often given as a reason for air-conditioning buildings. This paper describes some pilot studies that examined climatic variation in noise tolerance and the interaction with the thermal environment. Through further studies it is hoped to establish criteria to judge the acceptability of naturally ventilated buildings in noisy areas.
Keywords: Noise level, noise tolerance, thermal comfort, adaptation, United Kingdom, Pakistan
Citedy By: 7
Independent power (or pollution) producers? Electricity reforms and IPPs in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S036054421500170X
Author: Hassan Qudrat-Ullah
Journal: Energy,Vol.83 (), 2015--Pages 240-251
Abstract: This paper examines Pakistan's experience with electricity reforms pertaining to the various energy policies enacted in Pakistan over the past two decades. The effects of privatization in general and IPPs' investments in Pakistan's electricity sector in particular are analyzed. For long-term integrated assessment of electricity reforms and IPPs' investments, the development, validation, and application of a unique dynamic model is demonstrated. Contrary to the generally perceived positive effects of privatization and IPPs' investment, Pakistan's electricity sector is enduring severe gaps between demand and supply, higher electricity rates, and increasing CO2, SO2, and NO (nitrogen oxide) emissions. IPPs, due to their major investments in pro-oil generation, are the major electricity-related pollution producers. Through an immediate government intervention, a pro indigenous resource-focused alternate energy policy appears to provide cheaper and cleaner electricity in Pakistan.
Keywords: Electricity, IPPs, Pakistan, Privatization, Environmental emissions, Energy policy
Citedy By: 8
Turn on the lights: Macroeconomic factors affecting renewable energy in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032114004249
Author: Ihtisham Abdul Malik, AliasBin Abdullah, Arif Alam, Khalid Zaman
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.38 (), 2014--Pages 277-284
Abstract: The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between macroeconomic factors (i.e., population growth; urbanization, industrialization, exchange rate, price level, food production index and live stock production index) and renewable energy in Pakistan over a period of 1975–2012. In addition, this study uses oil rent as an intervening variable to overcome the biasness of the single equation model. The results indicate that macroeconomic factors positively contributed to renewable energy consumption in Pakistan. The causality test indicate that there is a unidirectional causality running towards macroeconomic factors to renewable energy in Pakistan, however, renewable energy Granger cause oil rent but not via other route. In addition, there is bidirectional causality between exchange rate and live stock production in Pakistan. Variance decomposition analysis shows that economic growth has a major contribution to increase renewable energy in Pakistan.
Keywords: Renewable energy, Oil rent, Exchange rate, Consumer price index, Pakistan
Citedy By: 7
Iran-Pakistan-India Pipeline: Is It a Peace Pipeline?
[PDF] https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/39802/Iran%20Pakistan%20India%20Pipeline.pdf
Author: Abbas Maleki
Journal: MIT Center for International Studies Audit of the Conventional Wisdom,Vol.7 (16), 2007--Pages 
Abstract: A major natural gas pipeline that would stretch from the fields of southern Iran to Pakistan and India itself a remarkable prospect is being planned. But it faces serious hurdles, not least the fierce opposition of the U.S. government. The history of relations between Persia and the Indian subcontinent is more than 2000 years old. Until 200 years ago, Persian was the language of literature and government in India. After separation of Pakistan from India, Iran faced a dilemma of its relations with these two new states. During the Shah's era, Iran preferred to have close relations with Pakistan, although economic ties with India were not ignored. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and Pakistan's support of hardliners in Afghanistan, Iran found India as a new partner in Asia. India has been slowly but surely forging a comprehensive relationship with Iran on energy and commerce, infrastructure development, and military ties. Iran looks to India as a developed, democratic, and politically lucrative country for cooperation. For instance, some 8,000 Iranian students are studying in India, compared with 2,000 in the United States.A big market for India, Iran has the world's second largest oil and gas proven reserves, and acts as an important access route for India to Central Asia and Afghanistan. Case in point: India is seeking new routes to reach to Central Asia. One of them is the North-South Corridor, which links India to Russia and all of the former Soviet Union via the Persian Gulf, Iran and Caspian Sea. Iran's considerations are boosting trade, having secure borders, and avoiding "encirclement" by American proxies. At the same time, Iran is opposed to the hegemonic presence of the United States and its troops in the Indian Ocean. India has not been hesitant to play the Iran card to draw concessions from the United States on other matters of bilateral concern. So the pipeline is freighted with more significance than merely the delivery of natural gas.
Keywords: Iran-Pakistan-India Pipeline
Citedy By: 10
An example of energy savings in LDCS: Improving electrical equipment in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0360544292900463
Author: Peter M.Miller, Howard S.Geller, Anibal T.de Almeida
Journal: Energy,Vol.17 (10), 1992--Pages 969-982
Abstract: The potentials for electricity conservation in Pakistan are around 20 and 40% in the industrial and commercial sectors, respectively. Programs and policies to promote electricity conservation are proposed, which include the establishment of efficiency standards, changes in import duties, training, education, and cooperative research.
Keywords: Electricity Conservation, Efficiency Standards, Cooperative Research
Citedy By: 4
Mitigation of power sector environmental emissions through energy efficiency improvements: the case of Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479798902316
Author: R.M.Shrestha, A.I.Jalal, M.Latif, W.K.Biswas
Journal: Journal of Environmental Management,Vol.54 (3), 1998--Pages 249-258
Abstract: This paper assesses the potential of selected efficient electrical appliances for avoiding power generation and for mitigation of selected air pollutants from the power sector in Pakistan from technical as well as national, utility and user perspectives. The study shows that about 14, 21 and 35% of the total CO2, SO2and NOxemissions in the business as usual (BAU) case could be avoided by the adoption of selected efficient appliances during 1997–2015 from the national perspective, while the corresponding figures from the user perspective are 12, 17 and 29%, respectively. All selected efficient appliances would be cost effective to the users if electricity prices were set at the long-run marginal cost of supply.1998 Academic Press
Keywords: efficient electrical appliances, electricity generation avoided, Carbon di-oxide mitigation
Citedy By: 4
Coal gasification for sustainable development of the energy sector in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0973082608605001
Author: Abdul Waheed Bhutto, Sadia Karim
Journal: Energy for Sustainable Development,Vol.9 (4), 2005--Pages 60-67
Abstract: Pakistan has 19.5 gigawatts (GW) of electric generating capacity. The total power generating capacity has increased rapidly in recent years, due largely to foreign investment, leading to a partial alleviation of the power shortages Pakistan often faces in peak seasons. Rotating blackouts are, however, still necessary in some areas. The rules of the game for generating electricity are changing rapidly. The country's remaining recoverable reserves of crude oil are estimated at 42.28 million tonnes (Mt) (310 million barrels; 1 barrel = 0.1364 t). Thus, there is no prospect for Pakistan to reach self-sufficiency in oil. Pakistan has 853.19 billion cubic metres (Gm3) of proven gas reserves, and currently produces around 104.23 million m3 (Mm3) per day. While the energy demand is surging in Pakistan, at the same time pressure is building worldwide to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Pakistan is looking forward to finding ways to overcome the disadvantages of coal resulting from its relatively higher moisture, sulfur and ash content, in order to use this readily-available, indigenous resource to generate clean, reasonably-priced electricity. One way to overcome this problem is to convert coal from a solid to a clean gaseous fuel, which can then be burned like natural gas. When linked with modern combined-cycle turbines, gasification is one of the most efficient and environmentally sound ways of producing electricity from coal. Coal IGCC (integrated gasifier combined-cycle) power plants offer numerous benefits for the environment, power producers and consumers. This technology can help diversify the fuel supply and help balance Pakistan's future dependence on foreign sources of energy.
Keywords: Coal gasification, sustainable development, energy sector, Pakistan
Citedy By: 4
Radiometric analysis of Hazara phosphate rock and fertilizers in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0265931X97000180
Author: K.Khan, H.M.Khan, M.Tufail, A.J.A.H.Khatibeh
Journal: Journal of Environmental ,Vol.38 (1), 1998--Pages 77-84
Abstract: Natural radioactivity due to 40K, 226Ra and 232Th has been measured in phosphate rock samples, collected from various localities of Hazara division of Pakistan, and in locally prepared and imported fertilizer. For data acquisition and analysis, a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and a PC-based MCA were used. The 226Ra content was very high and was found to vary from 307.7 Bq kg−1 to 617.5 Bq kg−1. This can result in a significant radiation exposure if the rock and fertilizer are handled in places with poor ventilation that could lead to radon accumulation. These data can be used to determine the radioactivity being spread along with fertilizer on agricultural lands
Keywords: Radiometric analysi, Hazara Phosphate, fertilizers, Pakistan
Citedy By: 95
Factors influencing farmers׳ adoption of energy-based water pumps and impacts on crop productivity and household income in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115013957
Author: Boqiang Lin's, Izhar Ahmad
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.56 (), 2016--Pages 1182-1193
Abstract: Transport sector, because of the growing industrialization and urbanization of Pakistan, is one of fastest growing sector in terms of output, energy consumption and CO2 emission. Its current performance and future outlook has the potential to leave behind problems related to the global issues of energy security and environmental sustainability. The extents to which energy and non-energy inputs are substitutable are the core issue in planning and designing of energy policies. For this purpose we establish a trans-log production function for Pakistan transport sector and the input factors capital, labor and energy are included. Output elasticities of each factor and the substitution elasticities between these factors have been estimated and analyzed for the sample period of 1980–2013. The results show higher output elasticity and that all pairs of factor inputs are substitutes because of the higher level of substitution elasticities. The results suggest that by allocating more capital in the transport sector, the relevant energy saving technology could be promoted, thereby realizing the substitution between capital and energy and reduction of CO2 emission as a result. It further suggest that by continuous upgrading of the capital, substitution between energy and labor can also be achieved and the transition of Pakistan transport sector from labor intensive to capital intensive can be realized.
Keywords: Transport industry, Trans-log production function, Elasticity of substitution, Pakistan
Citedy By: 7
SMEs' export problems in Pakistan
[PDF] http://e3journals.org/cms/articles/1330778191_Jamshed%20%20et%20al.pdf
Author: Jamshed Khan Khattak, Muhammad Arslan and Muhammad Umair
Journal: E3 Journal of Business Management and Economics,Vol.2 (5), 2011--Pages 192-199
Abstract: The aim of this study is to explore the current export challenges for SMEs in Pakistan and how these barriers affect the SMEs. One industry (textile) was selected for this study. 25 textile SMEs were selected for data collection. A structured interview was conducted for every SME. Each interview took 30 minutes. Findings of this study showed that internal barriers are more influential than external barriers. This study is limited to on industry i.e. textile industry. This study disseminates the attention of SMEs export managers towards the genuine and main problems coming across the SME exports so they can deal with these barriers to magnify their exports as internal barriers are more controllable as compared to external barriers. This study offers insights into SME export barriers in a (relatively under-researched) Pakistani context.
Keywords: SMEs; Export Barriers; Textile., Pakistan.
Citedy By: 12
Revisiting the Relationship Between Coal Consumption and Economic Growth: Cointegration and Causality Analysis in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.usc.es/economet/journals1/aeid/aeid12113.pdf
Author:  Muhammad Shahbaz, Smile Dube's
Journal: Applied Econometrics and International Development,Vol.12 (1), 2012--Pages 165-192
Abstract: The paper re-visits the relationship between coal consumption and economicgrowth by including other supporting variables such as capital use and labor participationrate in Pakistan over the 1972-2009 period. The paper adopts an augmented neoclassicalproduction framework. In doing so, for the long run relationship between the variables the ARDLbounds testing approach to cointegration is applied. The VECM Granger causality procedure is used to detect the direction of causality between coal consumption and economic growth while an innovative accounting approach is used to check the robustness of causality results. Empirical exercise confirms a long run relationship between the variables. The results suggest that coal consumption, capital use and the labor participation rate have positive impact on economic growth. Causality analysis indicates bidirectional causal relation between coal consumption and economic growth and results are robust through innovative accounting approach. This implies that energy(coal) conservation policies may retard economic growth that in turn lowers the demandof coal.
Keywords: Coal Consumption, Economic Growth, Cointegration, Causality Analysis in Pakistan
Citedy By: 14
Large-scale hybrid solar-hydrogen electric power plants for Pakistan
[PDF] http://publications.aufwindkraftwerk.org/2003_Fawz-ul-Haq_Jilani_Haq_Large_Scale_Hybrid_Solar-Hydrogen_Electric_Power_Plants_for_Pakistan.pdf
Author: Kalim R. Fawz-ul-Haq, Rahmatullah Jilani
Journal: Proceedings International Hydrogen Energy Congress and Exhibition IHEC 2005 Istanbul, Turkey,Vol. (), 2005--Pages 
Abstract: Pakistan has large-scale year-round cloud free, ‘high sun’ areas, through which the perennial Indus River flows – bringing voluminous water from the ice-capped mountains in the north. In this geography, pollution free, large-scale Solar-Hydrogen hybrid electric power plants, of the ‘Solar-Tower’ type, can be established on the sunny plains at a safe distance from the river. In this paper, the basic technology to extract round-the-clock electric power, the location of such power plants and basic feasibility is discussed. Solar thermal system, inducing high speed ‘up-draft’ wind, being the main turbine-rotating electricity generating configuration, hydrogen is proposed to be used as a back-up clean fuel. During solar active periods, along with direct generation of electricity, hydrogen could be produced by photoelectrolysis of the river water. During solar-wind inactive periods, electricity would be generated through hydrogen-based systems. Some modifications, to increase efficiency and usability of available options are also discussed.
Keywords: Renewable energy, solar-tower, thermal wind, hydrogen, photoelectrolysis
Citedy By: 6
Estimation and characterization of gaseous pollutant emissions from agricultural crop residue, combustion in industrial and household sectors of Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231013008960
Author: Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Saleem Arif, Sher Muhammad Shahzad, Farhan Saleem
Journal: Atmospheric Environment,Vol.84 (), 2014--Pages 189-197
Abstract: A long-term energy crisis has resulted in increased combustion of biomass fuel in industrial and household sectors in Pakistan. We report results of a study on the emission characteristics of rice husk, rice straw, corncobs and bagasse since they are frequently used as biomass fuel and differed remarkably in physico-chemical and combustion characteristics. Emission concentrations and emission factors were determined experimentally by burning the biomass fuel using a burning tower. Modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of rice husk, rice straw, corncobs and bagasse was >0.97 indicating that combustion was dominated by flaming mode. Emission factors of gaseous pollutants CO, CO2, NO2, NO, NOx and SO2 for rice straw were calculated to be 17.19 ± 0.28, 1090.07 ± 24.0, 0.89 ± 0.03, 1.48 ± 0.04, 3.16 ± 0.08 and 0.38 ± 0.03 g kg−1 respectively which were significantly (p < 0.05) higher compared to those from rice husk (14.05 ± 0.18, 880.48 ± 8.99, 0.19 ± 0.01, 1.38 ± 0.02, 2.31 ± 0.04 and 0.11 ± 0.03 g kg−1), corncobs (8.63 ± 0.12, 595.44 ± 10.38, 0.16 ± 0.01, 0.70 ± 0.01, 1.23 ± 0.02 and 0.02 ± 0.00 g kg−1) and bagasse (12.39 ± 0.08, 937.03 ± 9.07, 0.36 ± 0.03, 1.44 ± 0.02, 2.57 ± 0.04 and 0.18 ± 0.02 g kg−1). Total emissions of CO, CO2, NO2, NO, NOx and SO2 were estimated to be 3.68, 230.51, 0.05, 0.36, 0.60 and 0.03 Gg for rice husk, 33.75, 2140.35, 1.75, 2.91, 6.20 and 0.75 Gg for rice straw, 1.11, 76.28, 0.02, 0.02 and 0.03 Gg for corncobs and 42.12, 3185.53, 1.22, 4.90, 8.74 and 0.61 Gg for bagasse respectively. Rice straw, however, had significantly (p < 0.05) higher potential of gaseous pollutant emission factors. Bagasse had the highest values of total emissions followed by rice straw, rice husk and corncobs. Rice straw and bagasse, on cumulative basis, contributed more than 90% of total emissions of gaseous pollutants. Results reported in this study are important in formulating provincial and regional emission budgets of gaseous pollutants from burning of agricultural residues in Pakistan.
Keywords: Biomass fuel, Gaseous pollutants, Emission factors, Emission allocations, Agricultural crop residue, Emission inventory
Citedy By: 17
Fertilizer and irrigation effects on forage protein and energy production under semi-arid conditions of Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378429014000112
Author: SamiUl-Allah, Asif Ali Khan, Thomas Fricke, Andreas Buerkert
Journal: Field Crops Research,Vol.159 (1), 2014--Pages 62-69
Abstract: Fertilizer and irrigation water are major inputs for forage production in semi-arid areas, and to ensure sustainability, nutrient and water efficient crop species should be used. The major objectives of the present study were to (i) evaluate the effect of crop species, fertilizer and irrigation on nutritive value and (ii) determine irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) in terms of crude protein (CP) and metabolizeable energy (ME) production per unit of land. A two-year field experiment was conducted in Faisalabad, Pakistan, with a four times replicated completely randomized design in a split-plot arrangement of a combination of fertilizer treatment (control, farm yard manure (FYM) and mineral fertilizer (MIN)) and irrigation (recommended irrigation (RI), half recommended irrigation (HRI)) as main-plots. Sub-plots were assigned to two cropping systems Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) followed by corn (Zea maysL.) (common cropping system, CCS) and the drought-adopted cropping system (DACS) oat (Avena sativa L.) followed by sudangrass (Andropogon sorghum subsp. drummondii). Crude protein concentration and IWUE of CP production per unit of land in CCS was 44 and 13% higher than in DACS, whereas ME contents and IWUE of ME production in DACS was 9.5 and 38% higher than in CCS. In view of ME as the major limiting nutritive property in roughages for feeding dairy cows, it is concluded that the tested DACS may be more suitable for sustainable forage production under water and nutrient limited conditions in semi-arid areas of Pakistan.
Keywords: Fertilizer and irrigation, Cropping system, Nutritive value, Irrigation water use efficiency
Citedy By: 5
Energy crisis and performance of industry of Pakistan: an empirical study
[PDF] https://www.brookings.edu/on-the-record/the-united-states-and-russia-in-central-asia-uzbekistan-tajikistan-afghanistan-pakistan-and-iran/
Author: MI Abdullah, L Wei, W Anwar
Journal: Bulletin of Energy Economics,Vol.1 (3), 2013--Pages 21-27
Abstract: Before 1991, the states of Central Asia were marginal backwaters, republics of the Soviet Union that played no major role in the Cold War relationship between the USSR and the United States, or in the Soviet Union’s relationship with the principal regional powers of Turkey, Iran, and China. But, in the 1990s, the dissolution of the Soviet Union coincided with the re-discovery of the energy resources of the Caspian Sea, attracting a range of international oil companies including American majors to the region. Eventually, the Caspian Basin became a point of tension in U.S.- Russian relations. In addition, Central Asia emerged as a zone of conflict. Violent clashes erupted between ethnic groups in the region’s Ferghana Valley. Civil war in Tajikistan, in 1992- 1997, became entangled with war in Afghanistan. Faltering political and economic reforms, and mounting social problems provided a fertile ground for the germination of radical groups, the infiltration of foreign Islamic networks, and the spawning of militant organizations like the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU). The IMU first sought to overthrow the government of President Islam Karimov in Uzbekistan, later espoused greater ambitions for the creation of an Islamic caliphate (state) across Central Asia, and eventually joined forces with the Taliban in Afghanistan. With the events of September 11, 2001 and their roots in the terrorist groups operating in Afghanistan, Central Asia came to the forefront of U.S. attention.
Keywords: Energy Crises, industry performance, Empirical study, Pakistan
Citedy By: 3
Distribution of total and diffuse solar radiation at Lahore, Pakistan
[PDF] http://results.pu.edu.pk/images/journal/chemistry/PDF-FILES/Paper%206_june%202010.pdf
Author: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Firoz Ahmed and Wasim Akhtar
Journal: Journal of Scientific Research,Vol. (1), 2010--Pages 
Abstract: In this research work the solar radiation for Lahore (Latitude31.56) has beenstudied for efficient utilization of solar energy employing sunshine hour data. The resultsobtained exhibit the variation of direct and diffuse radiation at Lahore. The diffuse radiation is maximum in the month of July and minimum during the month of April, Mayand June. The K Value indicates the clear sky during the month of January, February, tApril, May and September to December. Where as during the month of Jun to August thesky is mostly cloudy which is the monsoon month. From the estimated results it is foundthat with the exception of monsoon months solar energy can be utilized very efficientlythrough out the year.
Keywords: Diffuse Radiation, Lahore, Solar Radiation, Sky Condition, Pakistan
Citedy By: 6
Oil price volatility and its impact on economic growth in Pakistan
[PDF] http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfe/1/4/2/
Author: Muhammad Jawad
Journal: Journal of Finance and Economics,Vol.1 (4), 2013--Pages 62-68
Abstract: The main objective of this research is to analyze the impact of oil price volatility on the economic growth of Pakistan. Secondary data from 1973 to 2011 were used to estimate the coefficients. Linear Regression analysis is used to analyze the dependency among the dependant and independent variables. All variable Oil price, Oil supply, oil demand, Gross Domestic production, Public sector investment, private sector investment and Trade balance is stationary at 1st Difference through ADF test. Trade Balance, Private sector investments have a significant effect on Gross domestic production and Public sector investment, Oil price volatility has insignificant impact on Gross domestic production. Government should make a proper plan and procedure according to Pakistan’s economic growth and requirement which would help to maintain the equilibrium of oil demand and supply and decreased the impact of oil price volatility on the economic growth. Meanwhile, the government of Pakistan also focused on its trade balance and also tries to increase private sector investment to increase its economic growth.
Keywords: oil price volatility, linear regression, macroeconomic variables, economic growth of Pakistan
Citedy By: 10
Status of Petroleum Sector In Pakistan - A Review
[PDF] http://www.ogbus.ru/eng/authors/AdeelAhmad/AdeelAhmad_1.pdf
Author: Adeel Ahmad, Mithilesh Kumar Jha
Journal: Oil and Gas Business Journal,Vol. (1), 2008--Pages 
Abstract: Pakistan economy is growing steadily. This growth demands higher energy consumption and consequently putting high pressure on countries economy. Pakistan mainly depends upon oil and gas resources to fulfil energy requirements .Indigenous resources of Oil are not enough to quench energy thirst of the growing economy. As a result Pakistan has to import large quantity of oil and oil based products from Middle East countries. Gas reserves in the country are enough for current gas requirements. So natural gas is playing a key role in power sector. Currently in oil upstream and down stream sector there are some local and international companies involved and government of Pakistan is establishing such policies that it can attract more international investors in this sector but the rapid pace of change, high degree of uncertainty and unstable political situation of the country present significant challenges and risk to foreign investment .Objective of this paper to highlight the present status of petroleum industry in Pakistan and its future prospects keeping in view the internal fluid situation and geopolitical condition of the region.
Keywords: Hydrocarbon, Compressed Natural Gas, Petroleum. Pakistan
Citedy By: 7
Estimation and comparison of diffuse solar radiation over Pakistan
[PDF] http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.618.7951&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Author: SZ Ilyas, SM Nasir, S Kakac
Journal: Int. Sci. Journal for Alternative Energy and Ecology,Vol.13 (47), 2007--Pages 
Abstract: Measured data of solar radiation for 1984–2003 are presented. The monthly averages of hourly and annual variation of solar radiation are calculated. Estimated values of diffuse radiation to total solar radiation using different correlation ships developed by Page, Iqbal, Liu and Jordan, and Hay are presented. These models are then compared by estimating diffuse irradiation values for different locations over Pakistan.
Keywords: diffuse solar radiation, Pakistan, radiation data
Citedy By: 1
Passthrough of global inflation to domestic inflation: An empirical evidence for Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.qurtuba.edu.pk/jms/default_files/JMS/7_1/JMS_January_June2013_105-111.pdf
Author: Atif Ali Jaffri, Rooma Asjed & Samra Bashir
Journal: Journal of Managerial Sciences,Vol.VII (1), 2013--Pages 105-111
Abstract: This study has estimated passthrough of global food and energy inflation to CPI inflation in Pakistan for the period 1993M2 to 2012M2. The study has applied Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test to check stationarity of data before applying Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique. The estimation results showed that global inflation in food, industrial inputs and energy price indices positively and significantly affect inflation in Pakistan in the long run. The empirical estimates of long run passthrough of foreign food and energy inflation to domestic inflation are consistent with recent studies for developing countries. On the basis of estimation results, the study recommends prudent use of monetary policy in coordination with fiscal policy to control pssthrough of foreign inflation to domestic inflation in Pakistan.
Keywords: Inflation, Food Inflation, Energy Inflation, Pakistan
Citedy By: 6
Evaluation by implementation of distribution system planning for energy loss reduction
[PDF] http://www.uet.edu.pk/research/researchinfo/journal/volume4/1-PP-5.pdf
Author: S. A. Qureshi and F. Mahmood
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences,Vol.4 (), 2009--Pages 43-55
Abstract: In recent years the nature of load has changed drastically and different electrical machinery i.e. mercury lamps, transformers, motors, switchgears are running inherently at low power factor. This means that power supply authorities have to generate much more current that is theoretically required. This high current level in our system needs to be reduced and efforts should be made to make the system more energy handling with minimum cost involved. This includes different techniques such as improving power factor, changing conductor size, substituting cables with conductors etc. The main objective of this research is to develop methodology and guide lines for distribution engineers to show that by reducing the energy losses of distribution system, available capacity of the system may be conserved without putting up additional capacity. A generalized computer program is used to evaluate any given HT/LT system and propose capacitor banks at different points, different conductor sizes in different portions of system. This results in improving the stability as well as energy handling capacity of the system at minimum cost.
Keywords: distribution system planning, energy loss reduction, Rehabilitation
Citedy By: 12
Agricultural Input Use Efficiency in Pakistan: Key Issues and Reform Areas
[PDF] http://ftpmirror.your.org/pub/wikimedia/images/wikipedia/commons/3/36/Agriculture_Input_Efficiency_in_Pakistan.pdf
Author: Naila Afzal and Dr. Shahid Ahmad
Journal: Research Briefings - Managing Natural Resources for Sustaining,Vol.1 (3), 2009--Pages 1-12
Abstract: Agriculture sector in Pakistan provides employment opportunities to more than 60 percent of the country’s population. It also provides food to around 162 million people and supports earning of foreign exchange. The profitability of irrigated agriculture is now declining as the input prices are growing at a rapid rate. The good examples are energy and fertilizers, where rise in electric tariff, diesel prices and prices of phosphatic fertilizers is going to have negative impacts on the profitability of irrigated agriculture. Thus, in the present scenario of food security and export of commodities not only output but also input analysis is necessary. This paper is the first approximation of conducting the input-output analysis where unit gross value production was estimated to indirectly analyze the input use efficiency at current factor price. This analysis is based on the past trends of inputs availability and their relationship with the Gross Value Production. In future, more systematic analysis can be made where primary data can be collected on canal command basis using diagnostic studies.
Keywords: Energy, Agriculture, Reform Areas Pakistan
Citedy By: 9
Impact of electricity shortage on daily routines: A case study of Pakistan
[PDF] http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1260/0958-305X.24.5.701
Author:  Rab Nawaz Lodhi, Dr. R. K. Malik
Journal: Energy & Environment,Vol.24 (5), 2013--Pages 701-709
Abstract: People in Pakistan are facing many problems due to load shedding which is a result of electricity shortages. This study investigated the consequences of electricity shortage on daily routines and overall performance of people in Pakistan. Data has been collected through video recorded interviews and written comment-based interviews using a social network of “Face Book” as suggested by QSR-International (2012). Sample includes students, housewives, professional workers and businessmen who are living in Pakistan. The study identified 22 different results of electricity shortage in daily routines of people in Pakistan. Sleeplessness, incompletion of tasks, use of alternative resources and inefficient learning have been found to be the more critical results of electricity shortage. Furthermore, these consequences of electricity shortage can be divided into social and psychological problems. It is concluded that the shortage of electricity has changed the lives of people in Pakistan irrespective of their professions.
Keywords: electricity shortage, load shedding, Pakistan
Citedy By: 6
Health and road transport in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S003335060500106X
Author: AA Hyder, AA Ghaffar, DE Sugerman, TI Masood, L Ali
Journal: Public Health,Vol.120 (2), 2006--Pages 132-141
Abstract: The 1998 Global Burden of Disease Study estimated that road traffic injuries (RTIs) will become the third leading cause of lost disability-adjusted life years, with two-thirds of the deaths occurring in the least developed nations. Moreover, automobile-based transport systems are associated with air pollution (lead toxicity, asthma and greenhouse gas accumulation), noise disturbances, physical inactivity and obesity. Study design This study (1) reviewed road transport literature in Pakistan and the impacts on health outcomes; (2) examined health policies to assess their focus on transport-related health problems; and (3) identified policy gaps for future research.MethodsA methodological review of the literature on direct and indirect effects of road transportation in Pakistan. This review includes government documents, memos, statements and draft policies as well as relevant articles indexed in MEDLINE.ResultsA systematic review revealed no approved transport policy in Pakistan, despite three national health policy documents. The Health Chapter of the 9th Five Year Plan appreciates the grave threat of unchecked RTI, but fails to offer specific policy interventions. Despite ambitious plans by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, actual projects and their implementation remain scarce, resulting in ever-increasing air pollution. The health impact of lead toxicity, noise pollution and RTIs remain high, while obesity is on the rise.ConclusionThe increasing health impact of road transport on 140 million people calls for immediate policy action.Governmentagenciesmust intervene effectively to establish monitoring and decentralised enforcement nationwide, while simultaneously supporting alternative modes of transportation.
Keywords: Pakistan, Road-based transport, Cars, Health
Citedy By: 27
Energy Planning In Pakistan: Problems and Prospects
[PDF] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1477-8947.1982.tb01020.x/full
Author: Abu Mohammad Izharul Haque
Journal: Natural Resources Forum,Vol.6 (1), 1982--Pages 63-79
Abstract: The per capita consumption of commercial energy and electricity in Pakistan in 1978 was 0.2 tons of coal equivalent (TCE) and 180 kW-h respectively, that is, about half of the average for developing countries, 10 per cent of the world average and about 1.7 per cent of US consumption.About 10,000 barrels per day, roughly 10 per cent of domestic consumption is produced indigenously, the rest being imported mainly in the form of crude oil, diesel fuel and kerosene. Although the volume of imports has increased at a rate of only 5.2 per cent per annum, as a result of price increases Pakistan's import bill has gone from $611 million in 1978–1979 to $1.58 billion in 1980–1981.The Fifth Five-Year Plan (1978–1983) enumerated policy strategies for power and fuel. Regarding power, maximum priority was given to hydroelectric generation conserving fuel through use of extra-high voltage transmission lines, reduction of system losses, expansion of village electrification, and putting power corporations on a sound financial basis. As regards fuel, the plan stresses exploration for new oil and gas fields, accelerated development of proven fields, expansion of gas consumption for industrial use, strengthening of transport and storage of oil and research and development on non-conventional sources of energy. $3.39 billion was allocated to the energy sector. This represents 22.6 per cent of public sector funding.The National Energy Policy Committee regulary reviews the energy situation in the country with a view to effecting proper development and utilization of energy resources.
Keywords: Energy Planning, Pakistan, Energy consumption, Electricity, Problems, Prospects
Citedy By: 3
Determination of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the inter-tidal sediments off Balochistan (Pakistan) Coast, Arabian Sea
[PDF] https://academic.oup.com/rpd/article-abstract/123/2/268/1600425/Determination-of-gamma-emitting-radionuclides-in?redirectedFrom=fulltext
Author: M. Akram, Riffat M. Qureshi, Nasir Ahmad, Tariq Jamal Solaija
Journal: Radiation Protection Dosimetry,Vol.123 (2), 2007--Pages 268-273
Abstract: Natural radionuclide contents of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K were studied for inter-tidal sediments collected from selected locations off the745 km long Balochistan Coast using HPGe detector based gamma-spectrometry system. The sampling zone extends from the beaches of Sonmiani (near Karachi metropolis) through Jiwani (close to the border of Iran). The natural radioactivity levels detected in various sediment samples range from 14.4 ± 2.5 to 36.6 ± 3.8 Bq kg−1 for 226Ra, 9.8 ± 1.2 to 35.2 ± 2.0 Bq kg−1 for 228Ra and 144.6 ± 9.4 to 610.5 ± 23.9 Bq kg−1 for 40K. No artificial radionuclide was detected in any of the marine coastal sediment samples. 137Cs, 60Co, 106Ru and 144Ce contents in sediment samples were below the limit of detection. The measured radioactivity levels are compared with those reported in the literature for coastal sediments in other parts of the world. The information presented in this paper will serve as the first ever local radioactivity database for the Balochistan/Makran Coastal belt of Pakistan. The presented data will also contribute to the IAEA's, Asia-Pacific Marine Radioactivity Database (ASPAMARD) and the Global Marine Radioactivity Database (GLOMARD).
Keywords: gamma-emitting radionuclides, inter-tidal sediments, Balochistan coast, Arabian Sea Pakistan
Citedy By: 12
Transfer of radioactivity from soil to vegetation in Rechna Doab, Pakistan
[PDF] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/49679611_Transfer_of_radioactivity_from_soil_to_vegetation_in_Rechna_Doab_Pakistan
Author: Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tufail, Waheed Arshed, Muhammad Dilband
Journal: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies,Vol.46 (4), 2010--Pages 495-505
Abstract: In Rechna Doab, samples of the most common vegetation, perennial grass Desmostachya bipinnata (dab), were collected along with soil samples from 29 sites. Natural radioactivity of 226Ra, 232Th/228Ac and 40K was measured by using high purity germanium-based gamma ray spectrometer. Activity concentration levels of 226Ra, 232Th/228Ac and40K in soil were found to be 46.8±6.2 (36.0–57.6), 61.4±5.9 (48.2–73.2) and 644.8±73.9 (537.7–868.4) Bq kg−1 (dry mass), respectively, and those in vegetation were 2.74±1.70 (1.00–6.39), 2.24±0.59 (1.56–2.61) and 172.72±113.37 (53.14–469.24) Bq kg−1 (dry mass), respectively. The measured values of the activity concentration in vegetation are comparable with some other international data. Calculated soil to vegetation transfer factors of 226Ra, 228Ac and 40K were 0.06±0.03 (0.02–0.14), 0.04±0.01 (0.03–0.04) and 0.26±0.16 (0.09–0.69). The mean outdoor absorbed dose rate in air for the area under study was determined as 8.22 nGy h−1 and the mean indoor absorbed dose rate in air was 11.52 nGy h−1. The total annual effective dose to the general public from the vegetation was found to be (0.02–0.16) mSv, which is below the recommended limit value of 1 mSv y−1 for the general public. The dab vegetation under study was found to be radiologically safe for the population and environment.
Keywords: Radioactivity, soil, vegetation, Rechna Doab, Pakistan
Citedy By: 15
Marine resources in Pakistan: A tentative inventory
[PDF] http://sustainableinitiatives.org.pk/da/Government%20Documents/Research%20Doucment/Marine%20Resources%20In%20Pakistan%20NIO.pdf
Author: Nuzhat Khan
Journal: Pakistan Business Review,Vol. (), 2011--Pages 834-843
Abstract: Resources are being continuously removed from the earth due to high growth rates of human population. Many ofthese resources are non-renewable such as fossil fuels, minerals etc. and may be close to exhaustion due to unsustainableexploitation that results in an increase in food shortages, especially in protein food products. Non-renewable energy sources are also dwindling. In recent years emphasis has been laid on identifying renewable resources. The Sindh coastalzone has great potential of both living and non-living resources. Most of these are largely under-exploited and to someextentunexplored. This paper attempts to describe the estimated potential of variousmarine resources and their present level of exploitation andconservation in Pakistan.
Keywords: non-renewable, renewable resources, fossil fuels, marine energy sources, Pakistan
Citedy By: 5
Energy Analysis of Roof Integrated Solar Collector for Domestic Heating & Cooling Under Local Conditions of Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.ijrer.org/ijrer/index.php/ijrer/article/view/408/pdf
Author: Muhammad Imran, Hameed Ullah Mughal
Journal: International Journal of Renewable Energy Research-IJRER ,Vol.3 (1), 2013--Pages 13-19
Abstract: Household utilization of energy represents the 46% of Pakistan total energy. This situation requires that new energy model & alternates of energy should be developed for the household utilization of energy. Solar Energy is one of the best available options for this problem. Many designs of solar roof have been developed in the last half century to utilize solar energy from the roof. The previous designs are feasible but their design is complex and their performance. A model of Roof Integrated Solar collector is designed & fabricated. The dimensions of collector are 5 feet long, 4 feet wide & 0.5 feet height. Experimental readings are taken at various times of the day. The effect of orientation is also studied experimentally. Economic analysis is performed for different scheme of solar collector using linear economical approach. Energy Analysis shows that Roof Integrated Solar collector has a very healthy potential for solar thermal application as it has almost 37 % efficiency. The major loss occurs in solar collector. The life cost analysis shows that the cost of Roof Integrated Solar collector is very economical as compared to electric water heater, gas water heater or solar thermal water heater. Energy distribution analysis shows that 37% energy is transferred to water, 32 % is reflected back & 22 % is transferred to the atmosphere through collector walls & base & the rest of 9% is absorbed by the collector surface.
Keywords: Energy Analysis, Solar Energy, Roof integrated Solar Collector, Economical assessment, Pakistan
Citedy By: 3
Parametric tests of allocative efficiency in the manufacturing sectors of India and Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/000368497327353
Author: Abid A. Burki , Mushtaq A. Khan & Bernt Bratsberg
Journal: Applied Economics,Vol.29 (1), 1997--Pages 11-22
Abstract: This paper estimates allocative inefficiency in the manufacturing sectors of India and Pakistan. Based on an extension of the translog profit function approach, we propose a new method to the estimation of allocative inefficiency in two countries (or groups). The model is estimated using pooled annual data from the large scale manufacturing sectors of India and Pakistan over the period 1959–87. We find evidence of allocative inefficiencies in both countries. Specifically, results reveal that manufacturing firms in the two countries over-utilize capital and raw materials relative to labour and energy. The magnitude of over-utilization of capital is more severe in Pakistan than in India. We argue that these findings are hardly surprising given the structure of factor markets and past government policies in the two countries.
Keywords: Energy, labour, industrial activity, manufacturing sectors, Pakistan, India
Citedy By: 23
Parametric tests of allocative efficiency in the manufacturing sectors of India and Pakistan
[PDF] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235973489_Electric_power_consumption_foreign_direct_investment_and_economic_growth_-_A_comparative_study_of_India_and_Pakistan
Author: Abdullah Alam
Journal: World Journal of Science, Technology and and Sustainable Development,Vol.10 (1), 2013--Pages 
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to find potential causality and comparative relationships between electric power consumption, foreign direct investment and economic growth for India and Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach Granger causality tests have been employed for estimating the short and long run relationships between the variables, along with the adoption of co‐integration and error correction mechanism. FindingsEmpirical evidence for India covering a period of 1975‐2008 indicates long run causalities for electric power consumption and foreign direct investment boosting economic growth, electric power consumption and economic growth impacting foreign direct investment. For Pakistan, causality was established for foreign direct investment and economic growth inducing electric power consumption in the long run. Practical implications– For India, there is a strong need of policy that would guarantee secure and continued supply of electricity, as enhanced electric consumption is expected to boost foreign direct investment and economic growth. Pakistan should aim for cost‐effective, stable and environment friendly alternate to fossil fuels as the main source of its electric power generation.
Keywords: India, Pakistan, National economy, Economic growth, International investments, Electric power consumption, Foreign direct investment,Energy economics
Citedy By: 3
Economic feasibility of stand-alone wind energy hybrid with bioenergy from anaerobic digestion for electrification of remote area of Pakistan,
[PDF] http://penerbit.uthm.edu.my/ojs/index.php/ijie/article/view/1026
Author: Abdur Raheem, Mohammad Yusri Hassan, Rabia Shakoor
Journal: Journal of Integrated Engineering,Vol.6 (3), 2014--Pages 1-8
Abstract: Hybrid Renewable Energy systems (HRES) are gaining importance throughout the world because of the finite sources of oil and gas reservoirs. These have the great ability in the production of electrical energy and cleaning the environment. It is difficult to get grid electricity in the remote areas where no infrastructure exists. The utilization of renewable sources is the ultimate solution for the generation of electricity. In this paper, the economic modeling of Hybrid system consisting of Wind/biomass is explored for the remote area ‘Jangiah’ of Balochistan province, Pakistan. Anaerobic Digestion of biomass is used to get biogas. This source is used to complement the uncertainties in the wind production. Homer is used to simulate the hybrid model. Economic analysis is performed to get the net present value (NPV) and cost of energy. It is observed that wind/biomass alone is capable to meet the demand of community which consumes 60 kW peak daily along with the storage backup. This system is the most economical with COE equal to 0.118 US$/kWh following the hybrid biomass/wind/diesel system with COE 0.202 US$/kWh. The sensitivity analysis is carried out and shows that the proposed system is sensitive to the prices of fossil fuel and project lifespan. The net present value increases as the lifetime of the project increases from 15 years to 30 years. It can also be concluded that if the price of the diesel drops below 0.8 US$/liter, the traditional system using fossil fuels will become the most suitable system for the generation of electricity in remote areas.
Keywords: Bioenergy; Hybrid Renewable Energy system; Homer; Wind turbine; Pakistan; Cost of energy
Citedy By: 3
Role of changing energy pricing policies on energy pricing policies in Pakistan
[PDF] https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Asad_Qureshi2/publication/240638604_Effect_of_Electricity_Pricing_Policies_on_Groundwater_Management_in_Pakistan/links/5570aa0508aef8e8dc62fad8/Effect-of-Electricity-Pricing-Policies-on-Groundwater-Management-in-P
Author: Asad Sarwar Qureshi, Mujeeb Akhtar and Tushaar Shah
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Applied Irrigation Science ,Vol.39 (2), 2004--Pages 329-342
Abstract: Profitability of irrigated agriculture based on pumped water systems is now a serious question faced by the farming community in Pakistan. According to an estimate, the number of groundwater structures has increased to over 0.6 million and more than 80 percent are driven by the diesel engines. Diesel is an imported commodity and is considered a source of pollution in the rural environment. The electric pump sets, which make less than 20 percent of the total tube well population, are considered the most efficient, environmental friendly, and low in operating and maintenance costs. However, higher cost of the electric connection and changing energy pricing policies makes it unaffordable for the farming communities in Pakistan. In Pakistan, electrification of private tube wells was started in 1970s when the base installation costs were borne by the Government. Until 1991, farmers were only charged on the basis of actual electricity consumed. In 1991, flat rate pricing policy was introduced to give relief to the farmers. This decision gave farmers unlimited access to groundwater, which resulted in wastage of energy and over-exploitation of groundwater. Moreover, tube well connections were also miss-used by the farmers. Considering this alarming situation and losses to the national economy, this policy was withdrawn and new flat-cum-metered tariff policy was introduced. The results of this policy still have to be seen. What the energy irrigation nexus in Pakistan has to contend with is a result of this ‘coaxed demand creation’; doing so requires dealing with a large complex of issues; however, the most burning has been the issue of electricity pricing and supply to agriculture. The choice is between two pricing regimes; government-owned power utilities have shuttled back and forth between metered and flat rate pricing regimes. Pakistan switched from metered tariff to flat rate regime; switched back to metered tariff regime and has now settled with flat-cum-metered tariff regime, a mongrel that probably combines the worst features of both. This paper highlighted the impacts of changing energy policies on groundwater development and management in Pakistan.
Keywords: Energy pricing policies, energy pricing policies, Pakistan
Citedy By: 3
Gamma-ray activity and dose rate of brick samples from some areas of North West Frontier Province
[PDF] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8711467
Author: SafdarAli, M.Tufail, KhalidJamil, Abid Ahmad ,H.A.Khan
Journal: Science of the total Environment,Vol.187 (3), 1996--Pages 247-252
Abstract: It is important to measure natural radioactivity due to γ-rays from building materials and consequently to determine the dose rate from these materials. This helps to implement precautionary measures whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits.A knowledge of gamma radioactivity is required by the building construction association to adopt preventive measures to mitigate or minimize the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The aim of this work was to measure the gamma activity due to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in bricks from the Peshawar, Nowshera and Mardan districts of NWFP of Pakistan. The radiological doses to the occupants from the brick floor of a wooden house were calculated. The average γ dose equivalent rate was calculated to be 0.14 mSv per year, which is well below the external γ dose limit of 0.46 mSv per year as given in UNSCEAR [2].
Keywords: Natural radioactivity, Bricks, Pakistan, Building construction, North West Frontier Province
Citedy By: 51
Agricultural Waste Biomass Energy Potential in Pakistan
[PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/98565/1/1%20CO%201%202%20.pdf
Author: MA Saeed, A Irshad, H Sattar
Journal: Proceedings of the International Bioenergy Exhibition and Asian Bioenergy Conference,Vol. (), 2015--Pages 
Abstract: Pakistan has a major electricity supply problem with urban areas having a very intermittent supply of electricity. The supply gap at periods of high demand is 6 GW. Pakistan has a large agricultural economic sector and produces a substantial amount of waste material that has little current economic use. This work shows that these agricultural wastes are a significant energy resource that could be used to generate electricity using relatively small biomass generator sets that could take all the waste biomass from the surrounding agricultural area. Pakistan currently imports most of the oil used for electricity generation. The cost of this result in high cost electricity and it is shown that bio-electricity could be generated competitively in Pakistan. It was estimated, based on 30% thermal efficiency of electric power generation, that the annual production of crop residues have the potential to generate 76% of the annual electricity requirements of Pakistan. For this to come from agricultural wastes in farmland, transport costs would have to be minimised. It is proposed that a series of about 10MWe plants should be established (which are commercially available) with all farms in about a 10km radius delivering their agricultural solid waste to the plant at the farmers cost with direct payment by the power generator.
Keywords: Agricultural Waste, Biomass, Energy Potential, Pakistan
Citedy By: 3
A study on the washability of the Azad Kashmir (Pakistan) coalfield
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378382012000598
Author: Saqib Nasir, Jiri Kucerik, ZahidMahmood
Journal: Fuel Processing Technology,Vol.99 (), 2012--Pages 75-81
Abstract: Pre-combustion coal cleaning is one of the most effective methods for removing unwanted minerals and pollutants. Coals are cleaned at the mine site using water-based processes to remove non-combustible minerals and to lower the concentration of pollutants such as sulfur. This paper summarizes the washability study conducted under the coal quality evaluation and beneficiation project of Azad Kashmir (Pakistan) coalfield. The aim of the study was to investigate and interpret washability characteristics of Kotli coalfields. Washability parameters such as degree of washing and washability number were also calculated and compared. The coal samples of Kashmir coalfield belong to lignite (LigB) to high volatile bituminous (hvCb) category on the basis of proximate and gross calorific value analysis containing 8.80 to 85.2% ash, 4.70 to 85.7% fixed carbon and 4.63 to 34.3%, volatile matter. The majority of coal samples under investigation were found amenable to washing using gravity separation. As a result of present investigation 21.6, 22.4, 9.0, 52.1 and 42.3% of ash in the raw coal could be reduced to 7.7, 9.2, 4.8, 5.4 and 10.0% cumulative ash for the five samples. The optimum grade recovery conditions are also discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Coal, Proximate analysism, Washability, Demineralization, Beneficiation, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Citedy By: 9
The Iran–Pakistan–India Natural Gas Pipeline: Implications and Challenges for Regional Security
[PDF] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247526700_The_Iran-Pakistan-India_Natural_Gas_Pipeline_Implications_and_Challenges_for_Regional_Security
Author:  Anjali Sahay, Jalil Roshandel
Journal: Strategic Analysis,Vol.34 (1), 2010--Pages 
Abstract: This research article examines the rationale for Iran, Pakistan, and India entering into a trade agreement to meet their economic, political, and strategic needs as well as the constraints and challenges that still hamper such an agreement from realizing its full potential. Using the gas pipeline project as a case study, the issues of energy security (as the independent variable) and of economic interdependence (as the dependent variable) highlight the importance of cooperation among these countries. The Iran-Pakistan-India Natural Gas Pipeline: Implications and Challenges for Regional Security. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247526700_The_Iran-Pakistan-India_Natural_Gas_Pipeline_Implications_and_Challenges_for_Regional_Security [accessed Sep 15, 2017].
Keywords: Iran–Pakistan–India Gas Pipeline, challenges, regional security
Citedy By: 8
Determination of total suspended particulate matter and heavy metals in ambient air of four cities of Pakistan
[PDF] https://idosi.org/ijee/2(2)11/4.pdf
Author: Muhammad Ali Awan, Syed Hassan Ahmed, Muhammad Rizwan Aslam and Ishtiaq Ahmed Qazi
Journal: Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment ,Vol.2 (2), 2011--Pages 128-132
Abstract: Total suspended particulates (TSPs) in ambient air of four cities of Pakistan were collected using ahigh volume sampling technique for subsequent heavy metal analysis. The sampling was conducted for 24hours and the concentration of TSPs ranged 568-2074, 1191-3976, 1133-4400 and 112-280 μg/m3 for Islamabad,Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Bahwalnagar, respectively. The level of TSP contamination was very high inambient air of two big industrial cities, Gujranwala and Faisalabad. TSPs were also analyzed for Cd, Pb and Znusing flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) following digestionusing a mixture of analytical gradenitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Compared to other metals, concentration of Cd was slightly high (around 325ng/m3) in the samples of Gujranwala and Faisalabad. Overall, the order of metal concentrations were Cd > Pb> Zn.
Keywords: Total suspended particles % Particulate heavy metals % Cadmium % Lead % Zinc, Pakistan
Citedy By: 1
Extending Technology Roadmap through Fuzzy Cognitive Map-based Scenarios: The Case of the Wind Energy Sector of Pakistan
[PDF] http://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds/999/
Author: Muhammad Amer
Journal: DISSERTATIONS AND THESES,Vol. (), 2013--Pages 
Abstract: In this modern era, energy is a key element required for sustainable development and prosperity of a society. Pakistan is an energy deficient country facing problems due to the shortage of over 4000 MW of electricity. The national energy sector is heavily dependent on imported fossil-fuel resources. The energy crisis is negatively affecting all economic and business activities, and it is widely recognized as a severe obstacle to growth and poverty reduction in the country. Establishment of wind farms can help to overcome the energy crisis.In this research, a national level wind energy roadmap is developed through scenario planning. Multiple future scenarios are developed using the fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) approach. This research has extended technology roadmapping through FCM-based scenario analysis. Building scenarios with FCM is a very new approach, and for the first time FCM-based scenarios are developed for the wind energy sector of Pakistan. Based on these multiple scenarios, a technology roadmap has been developed. This research approach is applied to the wind energy sector of Pakistan as a case study.This approach has been used to establish objectives and national targets of the roadmap. Then in a systematic way, critical roadmap barriers are identified against each scenario, and appropriate action items have been proposed to overcome barriers and promote deployment of wind energy projects in Pakistan. The objectives and targets of the roadmap have been translated into action items. The technology roadmap has four layers: strategic objectives, targets, barriers, and action items. Expert panels have been utilized to develop scenarios and technology roadmaps. Validation of this research is also carried out using experts. This new approach has helped to develop a robust roadmap and enabled anticipation of a wide range of possible future outcomes.This research fills an important gap by combining scenario planning and technology roadmapping techniques in future studies, and it has enhanced flexibility of the developed roadmap. Moreover, for the first time multiple and plausible FCM-based scenarios are developed, which combine the benefits of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Moreover, the technology roadmap for the wind energy sector of Pakistan is developed with a comprehensive study of practical obstacles and barriers towards deployment of wind energy technology. The research findings suggest that policy, financial, economic, lack of competition with conventional power plants, and technical are the most critical barriers towards deployment of wind energy projects in the country. Appropriate action items required to overcome the roadmap barriers against each scenario are also proposed in the developed roadmap. The experts also assigned responsibilities for the key roadmap action items to the major stakeholders.
Keywords: Fuzzy Cognitive Map, Wind Energy, Pakistan, Technology Application
Citedy By: 3
Studies and applications of nuclear tracks in solids in basic science and technology in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1350448708001583
Author: H.A.Khan, I.E.Qureshi, E.U.Khan
Journal: Radiation Measurements,Vol.43 (), 2008--Pages 571-577
Abstract: The solid state nuclear track detection (SSNTD) technique is now a well-established tool for the detection of charged particles with stopping power greater than a certain threshold value. Being a passive detection system, it existed in the form of primordial crystals and hence qualified to be regarded as the ‘oldest’ member of the nuclear detection systems. Since the advent of its laboratory use in 1958, the technique was adopted by different laboratories at different times all over the world. Pakistan is one of the countries that established an SSNTD-laboratory in the earliest developmental stage of the technique. Consequently, significant contributions were made by a small but energetic group of scientists toward the methodology of the technique as well as its applications in diverse areas such as nuclear physics, cosmology, material science, geology, geophysics, bio-medical physics and environmental science. In this article we will attempt to present a brief summary of the important advances made in the development of this technique and its innovative applications by Pakistani researchers in various fields of science and technology.As elsewhere in the world, the technique is not ubiquitous in all nuclear research laboratories in Pakistan because of the well-known limitations of the detection system. However, the number of workers involved in research studies has been growing over the years. These included both the fresh researchers as well as those who shifted from other research interests. This has resulted in a healthy reinforcement of the manpower engaged in SSNTD-based research work. After a selective presentation of the on-going investigations based on the use of SSNTDs in Pakistan, some comments are made for the possible future directions of progress.To put the Pakistani experience in international perspective, it is emphasized that the unique features of SSNTDs are facing serious challenges from rapid advances in high precision electronic detectors. The continued vitality of SSNTDs can be ensured through standardized detector materials and low cost automatic measuring systems.
Keywords: SSNTD technique, Pakistan, Nuclear physics, Cosmology, Material science, Geology, Geophysics, Bio-medical physics, Environmental science
Citedy By: 9
Indigenous Plants Based Biodiesel Resources in Pakistan
[PDF] http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1028&context=ebl
Author: Mushtaq Ahmad, Mir Ajar Khan, Muhammad Zafar, Shazia Sultana and Sobia Gulzar
Journal: Ethnobotanical Leaflets ,Vol. (), 2007--Pages 224-230
Abstract: Biodiesel is an emerging solution for the present day concerns about rising oil prices and depletion of fossil fuel resources throughout the world. In current scenario due to shortage of energy resources, biodiesel is very good option for energy security in Pakistan. There are large arable lands with good climatic conditions for large biomass production of biodiesel yielding species. In this study data is compiled to identify plant species bearing seeds rich in oil for biodiesel production. Among them the most important are Pongamia pinnata, Brassica spp. and Ricinus communis. Bio fuel reduce dependence onimported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability,reduce green house gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize theeconomy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. This paper suggests decision makers ingovernment of Pakistan to take initiative todevelop project for commercial production of biodiesel by using indigenous plants based resources.
Keywords: Indigenous plants, biodiesel, Pakistan
Citedy By: 5
Testing the relationship between electricity supply, development of industrial sector and economic growth: An empirical analysis using time series data for Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17509653.2011.10671173
Author: Nazima Ellahi
Journal: International Journal of Management Science and Engineering Mnagement,Vol.6 (4), 2011--Pages 272-277
Abstract: Industrial sector of a country is an engine to economic growth, a sustained and incessant supply of electricity is an important determinant of industrial sector performance, which further contributes to better growth of economic indicators. This research study analyzes the joint role of electricity supply and industrial sector development for economic growth of Pakistan, moreover it also finds the impact of electricity shortage on overall economic growth. Theoretically this study is based on endogenous growth model, and empirically it applies Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to find short run as well as longrun estimates. Major findings of the study include that labor, capital, electricity supply and industrial sector development play an important role for improving the economic growth of Pakistan and shortage of electricity results in dismal performance of industrial sector. Major recommendations include that, despite there are policies and incentives in the industrial sector, it cannot be improved or contribute to economic growth, unless the problem of electricity is fixed.
Keywords: electricity supply, industrial sector, economic growth, Pakistan
Citedy By: 8
Pakistan and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization
[PDF] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254216991_Wind_energy_potential_in_Pakistan
Author: Mahmood H. Nagrial's
Journal: International journal of ambient energy,Vol.5 (2), 1984--Pages 97-100
Abstract: This paper is aimed at indicating the wind power potential in Pakistan. The mean wind speed data for 17 locations has been obtained from meteorological measurements over a period of 30 years. Rayleigh distribution has been employed to predict the wind power potential. It has been found that the southern and south-western parts of the country has exploitable wind power potential.
Keywords: Wind energy, Pakistan, wind power potential, Rayleigh distribution
Citedy By: 3
Discussion on Sino-Pakistan Energy Cooperation
[PDF] http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-YNCM201201011.htm
Author: CHEN Li-jun
Journal: Journal of Yunnan University of Finance and Economics,Vol. (), 2012--Pages 
Abstract: China and Pakistan are friendly neighbors with adjacent territory,and the diplomatic relationship of the two countries is one of the most important bilateral relationships of China.At present,China and Pakistan have established "round-the clock" strategic cooperation partnerships with each other.Propelled by good political relations,the economic and trade cooperation and energy cooperation between the two countries continue to advance forward.By taking the opportunity of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries for 60 years,the promotion of energy cooperation between the two countries from a new beginning will be one of the most important contents to deepen the strategic partnership relations.
Keywords: China Pakistan Energy Cooperation
Citedy By: 2
Development of adaptive algorithms for the operation of windows, fans, and doors to predict thermal comfort and energy use in Pakistani buildings
[PDF] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19401490701868448
Author: Hom B. Rijal, Paul Gerard Tuohy, Michael A. Humphreys
Journal: American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Transactions,Vol.114 (2), 2008--Pages 555-573
Abstract: This investigation of the window-opening data from extensive field surveys in UK office buildings demonstrates: (1) how people control the indoor environment by opening windows; (2) the cooling potential of opening windows; and (3) the use of an ‘adaptive algorithm’ for predicting window-opening behaviour for thermal simulation in ESP-r. It was found that when the window was open the mean indoor and outdoor temperatures were higher than when closed, but it was shown that nonetheless there was a useful cooling effect from opening a window. The adaptive algorithm for window-opening behaviour was then used in thermal simulation studies for some typical office designs. The thermal simulation results were in general agreement with the findings of the field surveys. The adaptive algorithm is shown to provide insights not available using non adaptive simulation methods and can assist in achieving more comfortable, lower energy buildings while avoiding overheating.
Keywords: Adaptive algorithms, windows, fans, doors, thermal comfort, Enrgy use, Pakistani buildings
Citedy By: 81
Hydro and wind power integration: A case study of dargai station in Pakistan
[PDF] http://shoni2.princeton.edu/ftp/lyo/journals/EnergyPowerEngineering-2012.pdf
Author: Shahbaz Awan, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Asif, Amjad Ullah
Journal: Energy and Power Engineering,Vol.4 (4), 2012--Pages 203-209
Abstract: Pakistan is facing acute energy crises since last few years. Due to shortage of fuel oil and its sky touching prices, it seems very uneconomical to generate electricity from fuel oil. In order to generate cheap electricity we have to rely on renewable energy resources. To address these challenges, wind power generation is among the popular options in the world which is now being considered in Pakistan as well. However unremitting change in wind speed from calm to stormy introduces real challenges. Storing wind energy in batteries during the periods of low demand seems an expensive option, especially when dealing with large scale power generation. Due to incessantly varying nature of wind speed, it is not feasible to rely only on wind power for cheap power production. Also, it is not thriftily possible to construct separate transmission line. However if we integrate wind power with hydro power, we can utilize the maximum possible transmission capacity. Existing hydro power station operating in that area or pumped storage scheme can be used. This paper is an attempt to analyze coordination of wind generation with hydro power in those areas of Pakistan where both wind and hydro power sources exist. In this paper, different issues have been analyzed taking case study of Dargai. This paper is first attempt in Pakistan about integration of wind and hydro power to draw some general conclusions and to point out some areas in which further research can be done.
Keywords: : wind power, hydro energy, dargai Pakistan
Citedy By: 5
Building sector energy conservation programme of Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/037877889190021T
Author: Gul NajamJamy
Journal: Energy and Buildings,Vol.16 (1-2), 1991--Pages 533-535
Abstract: The urban climate in Pakistan presents a picture of concern. Concrete buildings, metalled roads, and rapidly diminishing foliage are creating urban heat islands. This has led to an alarming rate of increase in energy consumption by buildings to remain comfortable. This paper highlights the extent and nature of Pakistan's Buildings Sector Energy Conservation Programme to cope with this situation. Both ongoing as well as planned activities have been outlined. Results expected from a successful implementation of the programme are also described.
Keywords: Building sector, energy conservation programme, Pakistan
Citedy By: 2
Groundwater uptake and sustainability of plantations in Southern Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378377498000304
Author: A.N.Khanzada, J.D.Morris, R.Ansari, P.G.Slavich
Journal: Agricultural Water Management,Vol.36 (2), 1998--Pages 121-139
Abstract: Farm woodlots or plantations of salt tolerant trees may provide an economic use or reclamation treatment for salt-affected farmland within the irrigation regions of the Indus Valley, but the hydrological impact and sustainability of such plantations are unknown. Detailed measurements of plantation water use, watertable depth and soil conditions were recorded over 2 years in two small plantations with contrasting soil and groundwater salinity at Tando Jam in the Sindh province of Pakistan. The species monitored were Acacia nilotica, A. ampliceps and Prosopis pallida. Annual water use by 3- to 5-year old A. nilotica was 1248 mm on the severely saline site and 2225 mm on the mildly saline site. Water use by the other species was less than 25% of these rates, but this difference is largely explained by their lower density in terms of sapwood area per hectare. Water use by A. nilotica was considerably greater than annual rainfall, implying uptake of groundwater which was confirmed both by piezometric observations and chloride balance modelling to predict vertical water movement through the root zone. Plantation watertables fell from 1.7 m below surface in March to over 2.9 m in September, then rose again during irrigation of the surrounding farmland. Root zone salt concentrations remained high at the more saline site throughout the monitoring period, but at the less saline site there was evidence of increasing root zone salinity as salt accumulated in areas of the profile subject to root water uptake. Salt concentration in the upper profile decreased as the soil dried and water was absorbed from greater depth. Plantations using saline groundwater may be sustainable if occasional leaching and other salt-removing processes are sufficient to maintain root zone salinity at a level which does not excessively reduce tree growth.
Keywords: Water use, Salinity, Watertable, Chloride balance model, Acacia, Prosopis, energy conservation Pakistan
Citedy By: 50
IP and TAPI in the New Great Game: Can Pakistan keep its hopes high
[PDF] http://www.irs.org.pk/spapril12.pdf
Author: SEHER ABBAS
Journal: Spotlight on Regional Affairs,Vol.xxxi (4), 2012--Pages 1-38
Abstract: Like most of the 30 years that preceded it, 2012 will be punctuated by statistical evidence of Asia’s growing weight in the world economy and by the West's relative decline,” declares the Economist.(1) The world is now moving to a new polycentric world order. This evolving world order is evident by the struggle for energy-fields that extend from Iran to the Pacific Ocean. It is there, as Pepe Escobar terms it “the Liquid War” for the control of Eurasia takes place. “Nothing in Eurasia is without an energy angle and it has all come down to the struggle for blue gold and black gold.” OPEC’s monopolistic system of devising oil prices and the political/security instability in the Middle East has caused the world powers to look elsewhere to solve their energy needs. Furthermore, due to the economic rise of China and India, and their subsequent rising thirst for oil and gas to run their growing industries, the global politics of energy is messier than ever.
Keywords: Energy, Pakistan, global politics
Citedy By: 6
Current status and overview of renewable energy potential in Pakistan for continuous energy sustainability
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032116002550
Author: Abdul Ghafoor, Tanzeel ur Rehman, Anjum Munir, Manzoor Ahmad
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.60 (), 2016--Pages 1332-1342
Abstract: Unfortunately, Pakistan is facing severe energy crises from the last decade due to increasing population and heavily dependence on the import of the fossil fuels. The electricity breakdown/blackouts was 14–18 h in rural areas and 8–10 h in urban areas. This situation has drastically affected the residential, industrial and commercial sector of the country. Currently, it is a big challenge for the government to sustain the future energy supply of the country. Under these circumstances, the research have been increased for the exploration of renewable energy sources in the country to fulfill the deficit scenario of the country. Fortunately, Pakistan is lying in such a geographical location where potential for all the renewable energy sources exists abundantly viz. solar, wind, biogas production, bio-energy from biomass and feedstock, mini and micro hydel. About 81 million ton/annum biomass production has a huge potential to produce enough bio-energy by employing different technologies viz. combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, trans-esterification process etc. Similarly, available dung from 72 million animals (cows and buffalos) and available poultry droppings from 785 million poultry birds can produce considerable biogas to produce heat and electricity. Pakistan is also blessed with 5.5 Wh m−2 d−1 solar insolation with annual mean sunshine duration of 8–10 h d−1 throughout the country. Wind speed 5–7 m s−1 persists in the coastal regions of Sindh and Baluchistan provinces with more than 20,000 MW of economically feasible wind power potential. The worldwide utilization of renewable energy is already on a fast track, however, Pakistan is still lacking in adaptation of these blessed technologies. Therefore, it is a high time that the government should launch a comprehensive program for R&D, commercialization and awareness of the community by incentivizing for the wide scale adaption of renewable energy technologies for the sustainable energy supply of the country in future.
Keywords: Fossil fuels, Solar energy, Wind energy, Biogas, Biomass, Biofuels, Pakistan, energy sustainability
Citedy By: 1
Derivates of energy consumption and energy strength in Pakistan: An application of complete decomposition model
[PDF] https://www.medwelljournals.com/abstract/?doi=rjasci.2007.484.488
Author: Syed Adnan Haider Ali Shah Bukhari and Liaqat Ali
Journal: Research Journal of Applied Sciences,Vol.2 (4), 2007--Pages 484-488
Abstract: In present study complete decomposition model employed to decompose the changes in energy consumption and energy strength in Pakistan during 1960 to 1998. A general decomposition model raises a problem due to residual term. In some models the residual term is omitted that cause a large estimation error, while in some models the residual term is regarded as an interaction that might create a puzzle for the analysis. A complete decomposition model used here to solve this problem.
Keywords: Energy consumption, energy strength, decomposition model Pakistan
Citedy By: 2
Impact of different public E&P policies on natural gas reserves and production in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301420712000487
Author: Faisal Jamil
Journal: Resources Policy,Vol.37 (3), 2012--Pages 368-374
Abstract: Low wellhead domestic gas prices over the past few years have led to the beginning of a shortage in natural gas reserves and production in Pakistan. Gas demand steadily rises in all sectors for being an economical fuel as compare to substitutes. In the view of foregoing consumption trend, the demand for gas is expected to grow with a higher pace during the 2010s. On the contrary, indigenous gas reserves are running out and cannot keep up with the demand. This paper examines the extent of upstream activities in different petroleum policy regimes. The wellhead price for indigenous gas is compared with the prices of alternatives (for example, gas import prices). In order to put the problem in perspective, the relationship between wellhead gas price and cumulative gas reserves in Pakistan are analyzed and we find that the looming gas shortage can be ameliorated in the short-run and eliminated in the long-run through incentivized wellhead price. To put it briefly, the idea is mooted to first take advantage of huge domestic reserves to ensure competitive consumer prices for gas. The findings are applicable to several other economies with under-developed natural resources
Keywords: Petroleum policy, Wellhead gas price, Pakistan,Gas imports, gas demands, gas rserves
Citedy By: 5
Pakistan: Household Use of Commercial Energy
[PDF] http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/336261468059088633/Pakistan-Household-use-of-commercial-energy
Author: Masami Kojima
Journal: World bank Report,Vol.1 (), 2006--Pages 
Abstract: This study aimed to examine the impact of changing availability of different energy sources and their price levels on household energy choice, consumption, and expenditures. Knowledge of household expenditures and energy consumption patterns is an essential building block for further work on possible policies in the energy sector and associated poverty and social impact analysis. To this end, the four most recent household expenditure surveys-conducted in 1994, 1997, 1999, and 2001-were analyzed in detail. The survey periods included those with low fuel prices (1999) and a time of rising world oil prices (2001). No household expenditure surveys are available from the last two years, when the increase in fuel prices has far outstripped general inflation. Nevertheless, between 1994 and 2001, prices of electricity, natural gas, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) rose more rapidly than the consumer price index (CPI), potentially offering insights into how households might react to, and manage, sharply rising energy prices. The household survey analysis was supplemented by focus group discussions and individual interviews conducted in 2004 and 2005. Participants were asked questions about reasons for energy choice, the quality of service provided, evidence of increasing competition, affordability of different energy sources, benefits and costs, and commercial malpractice.
Keywords: Household Use of Commercial Energy, fuel prices, energy costs
Citedy By: 2
Solar resource assessment study for Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115016810
Author: Steffen Stökler, Christoph Schillings, Birk Kraasb
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.58 (), --Pages 1184-118
Abstract: Solar resource assessment becomes a very important factor for planners of Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems. Choice between nearby locations can make a difference if a plant is profitable or not, especially in a climatic region with complex topography as can be found in Pakistan. Nevertheless, Pakistan’s geographic location and climate offers a very high potential for solar energy applications. The solar resource assessment study presented in this article describes the approach and set-up required by the World Bank’s Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP).1 The project aims to create a validated solar atlas for Pakistan based on a combination of satellite data and ground measurements to support country-driven efforts to improve renewable energy resource awareness and exploitation. There are several country-specific, ESMAP-funded projects conducted by the World Bank Group (WBG) that cover comprehensive mapping and geospatial planning, including ground-based data collection. The solar resource estimation of Pakistan was one of the first projects to be approved within the program.The final and validated dataset ultimately will be published in the International Renewable Energy Agencies’ (IRENA) global atlas for renewable energy.
Keywords: Solar, Irradiance, Pakistan, ESMAP, World Bank
Citedy By: 7
Distribution of diffuse and direct insolation over Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0741983X9090097L
Author: I.R.Raja, J.W.Twidell
Journal: Solar & wind technology,Vol.7 (2-3), 1990--Pages 277-292
Abstract: With the exception of a three year record of diffuse insolation over Quetta, diffuse and direct insolation is not recorded at any location in Pakistan. The empirical relation due to Mani and Chacko (Solar Energy14, 139, 1973) for diffuse insolation has therefore been applied to estimate diffuse insolation over 37 locations in Pakistan and three neighbouring stations. Direct insolation is also obtained for the same locations. Using the data for 40 locations, diffuse and direct insolation is presented on maps. The isolines are compared with the results obtained for India and world maps.
Keywords: Diffuse insolation, direct insolation, Quetta, Pakistan
Citedy By: 4
Socio-economic prospects of solar technology utilization in Abbottabad, Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032114006005
Author: Musarrat Jabeen, Muhammad Umar, Muhammad Zahid & Masood Ur Rehaman
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.39 (), 2014--Pages 1164-1172
Abstract: Social evaluation is placed at low levels of the technical architecture, for this reason the findings of this study would be useful. This study evaluates the socio-economic prospects of solar technology utilization (STU) in Abbottabad, Pakistan. The objective of the study is to underline the variables of existing and inclined trends for alternate technology that come into consideration to assess the potential for STU by the consumers. The study finds out the type of need of the consumers have that solar technology could address to enhance the quality of life. On the bases of income, comparative user friendliness and comparative cost analysis, the study suggests the STU is the best market competitive technologies available. The potential for STU exists at 65% as frequency distribution of the survey showed. This study is a contribution to practical knowledge of solar technology to mitigate the energy crisis in Pakistan.
Keywords: Solar technology utilization, Socio-economic prospects, Existing trends, Abbottabad, Pakistan
Citedy By: 4
Scenario analysis of strategies to control air pollution in Pakistan
[PDF] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236162127_Scenario_analysis_of_strategies_to_control_air_pollution_in_Pakistan
Author: Pallav Purohit, Tahira Munir, Peter Rafaj
Journal: Journal of Integrative Environmental Scences,Vol.10 (2), 2013--Pages 
Abstract: This study presents an initial analysis of potential implications of the current economic development plans of Pakistan on local and regional air pollution and explores alternative approaches that could limit the envisaged deterioration of air quality. The study summarizes exogenous projections of energy use and application of emission control measures for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter up to 2030 and discusses the resulting implications on air quality. Illustrative emission control scenarios are used to assess health benefits of additional measures and associated costs. Scenarios investigate the policy options of employing cleaner fuels and of applying end-of-pipe emission control measures.
Keywords: Energy use, cleaner fuels, air quality air pollution, economic development, Pakistan
Citedy By: 6
Prospects for coal gasification in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0360544286900472
Author: Ahmad Mumtaz, Arshad M.Khan
Journal: Energy,Vol.11 (11-12), 1986--Pages 1103-1111
Abstract: Pakistan is currently facing serious energy supply problems. Energy demand has been increasing by about 8% per year during the last 12yr and this trend is likely to continue. Since 1980–1981 the oil import bill has been consuming more than 50% of yearly export earning. As there is not much scope for a sizeable increase in the domestic supply of gas, oil, or hydroelectric power, increasing the use of domestic coal is necessary to avoid excessive dependence on imported energy. Coal gasification to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) is not economical at present coal production costs, due to the low cost of indigenous gas and subsidized furnace oil and kerosene and the high SNG production costs from the technology available at present. If domestic prices of gas and liquid fuels are increased to the level of current international oil prices and developments in coal gasification technologies can bring about expected reductions in capital costs and improvements in efficiency, coal gasification may become economical in Pakistan. It is estimated that indigenous coal resources can potentially supply 3–6 million TCE/yr of SNG by 2000—about 10–20% of the substitutable fossil fuels demand for that year—along with meeting about 9% of the electricity demand.
Keywords: Coal gasification, Pakistan, energy supply problems, Energy demand, coal production costs
Citedy By: 4
Thermal Hydraulic and Safety Analyses for Pakistan Research Reactor-
[PDF] http://www.iaea.org/inis/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/35/015/35015936.pdf
Author: I. H. BOKHARI, M. ISRAR, S. PERVEZ
Journal: PReduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR),Vol. (), 1999--Pages 
Abstract: Thermal hydraulic and safety analysis of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) utilizing lowenriched uranium (LEU) fuel have been performed using computer code PARET. The present corecomprises of 29 standard and 5 control fuel elements. Results of the thermal hydraulic analysis show thatthe core can be operated at a steady-state power level of 10 MW for a flow rate of 950 m3/h, withsufficient safety margins against ONB (onset of nucleate boiling) and DNB (departure from nucleateboiling). Safety analysis has been carried out for various modes of reactivity insertions. The eventsstudied include: start-up accident;accidental drop of a fuel element in the core; flooding of a beam tubewith water; removal of an in-pile experimentduring reactor operation etc. For each of these transients,time histories of reactor power, energy released and cladsurface temperature etc. were calculated. Theresults indicate that the peak clad temperatures remain well below the clad melting temperature duringthese accidents. It is therefore concluded that the reactor can be safely operated at 10 MW without compromising safety.
Keywords: Thermal Energy, Hydralic Energy, Pakistan, Safety Analyses, Research Reactor Cited by 13
Citedy By: 13
Design and cost-benefit analysis of a novel anaerobic industrial bioenergy plant in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148116300088
Author: Rizwan Rasheed, Naghman Khan, Abdullah Yasar, Yuehong Su, Amtul BariTabinda
Journal: Renewable Energy,Vol.90 (), 2016--Pages 242-247
Abstract: The design and Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of a novel anaerobic bioenergy plant is presented. This plant can digest various feed sources including animal-manure, vegetable-fruit wastes, poultry wastes, sugar molasses etc. The fixed dome multi-digestor system enables a continuous feed and flow mechanism. It is also equipped with a biogas purification, compression and storage system. This medium scale bioenergy plant is the first of its kind in Pakistan. It has a total installation cost of US$105,000 and annual operation and maintenance cost of US$23,400. The average energy production is 142,380 kWh per annum. With a current average energy cost of US$0.315 per kWh from all sources in Pakistan, the cost-benefit ratio is 1.2 at an internal rate of return (IRR) of 19.76%, and short payback period.
Keywords: Biogas, Bio-fuels, Bioenergy generation, cost-benefit analysis, anaerobic bioenergy plant, Pakistan
Citedy By: 5
Economic development, pollutant emissions and energy consumption in Malaysia
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0161893807000580
Author: James B.Ang
Journal: Journal of Policy Modeling,Vol.30 (2), 2008--Pages 271-278
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to examine the long-run relationship between output, pollutant emissions, and energy consumption in Malaysia during the period 1971–1999. To supplement the findings of cointegrating analysis, we assess the causal relationships between the variables using the recent causality tests available in the literature. The results indicate that pollution and energy use are positively related to output in the long-run. We found a strong support for causality running from economic growth to energy consumption growth, both in the short-run and long-run.
Keywords: Energy consumption, Pollutant emissions, Causality, Multivariate cointegration
Citedy By: 504
Retrospect and Prospects of Edible Oil and Bio-Diesel in Pakistan--A Review
[PDF] http://www.pjar.org.pk/Issues/Vol23_2010No3_4/Vol23_2010No3_4P177.pdf
Author: Sumia Bint Zaman, Sidra Majeed and Shahid Ahmad
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research,Vol.23 (3-4), 2010--Pages 177-192
Abstract: Globally resources of petro-fuels are diminishing at a rapid rate.Efforts are underway to develop sources of bio-fuels. Out of the known sources ofbio-fuels, Jatropha is one of the most promising option. The purpose of this studywas to evaluate primarily the regional and global experiences to assess the potentialof Jatropha farming in Pakistan and to conduct a comparative economic analysisof alternate feasible options e.g. production of oilseeds, which are also beingimported in large quantities. Temporal analysis (1950-09) for edible oil consumption,production and imports is made. Projections for edible oil are worked outup to 2030. As there have been large variations in yield of Jatropha reported byvarious studies conducted in India and other countries, therefore most reliabledata have been selected for analysis to assess the prospects in Pakistan. Comparativeeconomic analysis is made in terms of oil contents, number of crops per year,yield and gross returns of oilseed crops and Jatropha. Analysis shows that increasein production of edible oil over the time is negligible against the largeincrease in requirement resulted in higher production gapbeingfilled throughimports. Projections made for edible oils illustrated that production gap is goingto be wider, which is currently 1.86 million tonnes (mt) and projected to be 3.4 mtby 2030. Jatropha seed production analysis of water-yield functions revealed thatyield varies from 1.1 t ha-1 in drought or dry spells to 12.75 t ha-1 with full irrigation in favorable environments. Benefit-cost analysis shows that break-even pointcan be achieved in fourth year of plantation of Jatropha. The projected consumptionin Pakistan for petro-fuel for 2025 is 35.1 mt, which is almostdouble of thecurrent consumption. Thus, the target projections for replacement of petro-fuelwith bio-diesel will be 3.51 mt for which 3.5 mha of land is required, as Jatrophahas to be grown in marginal areas with marginal yields. Comparativeeconomicanalysis shows that for sunflower and canola all conditions are favorable, as perfrequency of crops, price and returns as oilseed get returns of 166% higher thanJatropha. Oil contents ofsunflowerandcanolaarehigher than Jatropha. Analysisconcludes that it is more feasible to grow oilseeds because in trade-off betweenfood and fuel, food should win. Before launching commercial production ofJatropha in Pakistan key issues need to be addressed including maintaining thegoal of food security, water scarcity, cost-effectivity, and feasibility of Jatrophain comparison with oilseeds, pulses, feed crops and fuel-wood plants.
Keywords: Jatropha; Edible Oil; Biodiesel; Farming Potential; Pakistan.
Citedy By: 5
Fuel cell technology for sustainable development in Pakistan–An over-view
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115009120
Author: Rizwan Raza, Nadeem Akram, Muhammad Sufyan Javed, Asia Rafique, Kaleem Ullah
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.53 (), 2016--Pages 450-461
Abstract: Fuel cell technology holds the combination of benefits, which are barely offered by any other energy generating technology. Because the fuel used in this technology is found in abundance in nature and can also be renewed/sustained. Pakistan is blessed with renewable energy resources which are suitable for fuel cell technology. Therefore, fuel cell technology offers a great opportunity to meet the demand of energy and for the sustainable development of Pakistan. The energy research group at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Lahore has made efforts to study the technical aspects of fuel cell technology and its commercial benefits. The research group is interested in finding ways and means of generating and storing the energy produced by using fuel cells. In this paper, the research activities on fuel cell technology in Pakistan have been reviewed and it is also discussed how this technology can resolve the current energy crises in Pakistan and can be the source of sustainable energy. It has been also reviewed that the country would greatly benefit from fuel cells and fuel cell hybrid system (environmental friendly technology), which could be the best solution for electricity production as well for automobile industry.
Keywords: Renewable energy, Sustainable development, Hydrogen fuels, Fuel cells, Electrodes, Pakistan
Citedy By: 7
High frequency micro earthquakes recorded at Quetta, Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.bssaonline.org/content/54/6B/2133.abstract
Author: JOHN DENOYER
Journal: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America,Vol.54 (), 1964--Pages 2133-2139
Abstract: Numerous high frequency microearthquakes were recorded on a special portable magnetic tape recorder at Quetta, Pakistan, during the summer of 1962. These microearthquakes have maximum particle velocities between 30 and 50 cps. Many of the foci appear to be almost directly under the recording station. The focal distance for the nearest of these earthquakes appears to be less than one km. The source for these earthquakes may result from “bedding plane slippage” as strain accumulates in sediments adjacent to a high angle fault.
Keywords: Earthquakes, Quetta, Pakistan, Seismology
Citedy By: 6
Risk Analysis for Construction and Operation of Gas Pipeline Projects in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.uet.edu.pk/research/researchinfo/journal/volume2/4.pdf
Author: S. Mubin and G. Mubin
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences,Vol.2 (), 2008--Pages 
Abstract: In order to cater for its high energy demand, Pakistan is planning to import natural gas through pipelines from neighboring countries. For fully utilizing the imported gas, providing it to end customers, the infrastructure of gas pipeline needs to be developed. Therefore, huge investment has been done and proposed in this sector in coming future. Considering geological, topographical, geopolitical and climatic conditions of the country, there is added risk of earthquake, landslides and floods. Due to current geopolitical situation there is a persistent threat of unrest and terrorism in the country. Instable Government policies, high rate of inflation, rapid change in material prices are also important risk factors. All these factors make the situation very complex in quantifying the risk especially for a project in which the risk impact factor rises exponentially in case of risk occurrence. In this paper, most appropriate risk classification is made based on technological, organizational, political, natural climatic, security and environmental risk factors. Effort has been made to device a simpler risk management methodology to analyze and manage risks of gas pipeline project. In the proposed risk management model Monte Carlo simulation has been used to identify critical risks.
Keywords: Oil and Gas pipelines; Risk Analysis and Management; Monte Carlo simulation
Citedy By: 10
Suitability of multistage enthalpy extraction technology for power plants in Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1179/174602207X239999
Author: A. Malik, S. Naveed & Z. Nawaz
Journal: Journal of the Energy Institute,Vol.80 (3), 2007--Pages 
Abstract: Multistage enthalpy extraction technology (MEET) provides an improvement in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology and offersa n attractive alternative of conventional pulverised coal and natural gas power generation. It certainly improves efficiency and allows better emission compliance. Although the operating cost of IGCC is low, high capital costs threaten its competitiveness. Improvements in turbine design and gas clean-up system have been the focus of studies to make it economical. The competitive nature of power generation industry has so far threatened IGCC technology. For a country such as Pakistan where generation of electrical energy is of major concern, all options including effective coal utilisation need to be pursued. The option of employing MEET is worth considering, which offers considerable process improvement and allows the utilisation of a variety of coals. Multistage enthalpy extraction technology (MEET) technology is briefly discussed here along with its suitability for the Pakistani energy situation.
Keywords: Enthalpy extraction technology, power plants, Pakistan
Citedy By: 3
Assessment of Power Generation Potential from Municipal Solid Wastes: A Case Study of Hyderabad City
[PDF] http://www.ceacsu.edu.pk/PDF%20file/Volume%2015%20No%201/18-27-PJAEC-22042014-07.pdf
Author: Muhammad Safar Korai, Rasool Bux Mahar and Muhammad Aslam Uqaili
Journal: Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem,Vol.15 (1), 2014--Pages 18-27
Abstract: This paper is an attempt to estimate the power generation potential through utilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in order to overcome energy crisis, faced by country now a days. The waste-to-energy has proven itself to be an environment friendly solution for the disposal of municipal solid waste. Representative samples of the MSW were collected from the open dumping sites of solid wastes and analyzed for calorific value by using a Bomb Calorimeter in the laboratory. Net and gross calorific value of mixed MSW were obtained as 6519 & 6749 kcal/kg, respectively. Based upon its calorific value, net power generation was estimated as 1512 kWh per ton of MSW generated. This shows that MSW generated in the study area is more suitable for thermal treatment process. In this regard, different thermal treatment technologies have been compared with respect to various parameters and mass burn incinerator is found suitable for generation of power. This technology for conversion of MSW into power generation would not only be beneficial to meet the power demand but also reduce the environmental pollution to certain extent.
Keywords: Power Generation Potential, Municipal Solid Wastes, Hyderabad, Pakistan
Citedy By: 5
Forecasting electricity consumption in Pakistan: the way forward
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421515302068
Author: Anwar Hussain, Muhammad Rahman & Junaid Alam Memona
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol.90 (), 2016--Pages 73-80
Abstract: Growing shortfall of electricity in Pakistan affects almost all sectors of its economy. For proper policy formulation, it is imperative to have reliable forecasts of electricity consumption. This paper applies Holt-Winter and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models on time series secondary data from 1980 to 2011 to forecast total and component wise electricity consumption in Pakistan. Results reveal that Holt-Winter is the appropriate model for forecasting electricity consumption in Pakistan. It also suggests that electricity consumption would continue to increase throughout the projected period and widen the consumption-production gap in case of failure to respond the issue appropriately. It further reveals that demand would be highest in the household sector as compared to all other sectors and the increase in the energy generation would be less than the increase in total electricity consumption throughout the projected period. The study discuss various options to reduce the demand-supply gap and provide reliable electricity to different sectors of the economy.
Keywords: Projections, Energy, Forecasting model, Forecast evaluation, Sectorial energy consumption
Citedy By: 4
Radon concentrations in coal mines of Baluchistan, Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0265931X9900065X
Author: Aziz ahmed Qureshi, Din Muhammad Kakar, Muhammad Akram, N.U Khattak
Journal: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity,Vol.48 (2), 2000--Pages 203-209
Abstract: Prolonged exposure to radon, the largest source (69%) of natural radioactivity, may cause lung cancer and bronchial tissue damage. So monitoring of radon at places of high radioactivity and in underground mines is important to assess the radiological hazards to occupational workers. For these reasons radon measurements were carried out in some coal mines of Baluchistan, Pakistan. The measurements were based upon passive detection of radon using CN-85 track detectors in Box Type Dosimeters. The radon concentration varied from 121 to 408 Bq m−3 in the mines under study. The computed radon dose varied from 1.38 to 4.67 mSv yr−1 with an average of 2.19±0.5 mSv yr−1. These coal mines have been found to be safe from radon-related health hazards.
Keywords: Radioactivity, Radon, Track etching, Dosimetry, Health hazards, Radiation protection
Citedy By: 45
Measurement of radon exhalation rate and soil gas radon concentration in areas of southern Punjab, Pakistan
[PDF] https://academic.oup.com/rpd/article-abstract/140/3/300/1623915/Measurement-of-radon-exhalation-rate-and-soil-gas?redirectedFrom=fulltext
Author: S. A. Mujahid, S. Hussain, M. Ramzan
Journal: Radiation Protection Dosimetry,Vol.140 (3), 2010--Pages 300-303
Abstract: Plastic track detectors were used to measure the radon concentration and exhalation rate from the soil samples. The samples were collected from areas of southern Punjab, Pakistan. In a laboratory experiment, passive alpha dosemeters were installed inside cylindrical bottles containing the soil samples. The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rate were found in the ranges of 34 ± 7 to 260 ± 42 Bq m−3 and 38 ± 8 to 288 ± 46 mBq m−2 h−1, respectively. The on-site measurements of radon in the soil gas were also carried out in these areas using a scintillation alpha counter. The concentration of radon in the soil gas was found in the range of 423 ± 82–3565 ± 438 Bq m−3.
Keywords: radon exhalation rate, soil gas radon, southern Punjab, Pakistan
Citedy By: 9
Shale Gas Potential of Lower Cretaceous Sembar Formation in Middle and Lower Indus Sub-Basins, Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/2012/10392ahmad/ndx_ahmad.pdf
Author: Nazir Ahmad, Javed Mateen, Kashif Shehzad, Nasar Mehmood, and Fahad Arif
Journal: Annual Technical Conference 2011, Islamabad, Pakistan,Vol. (), 2012--Pages 
Abstract: Natural gas production from tight shale formations, known as “shale gas”, has become an important source of natural gas in the world due to technological advances and rapid increases in natural gas prices as a result of significant supply and demand pressures. Pakistan is facing big challenges in meeting its ever growing energy needs due to an expanding population and economic growth. It is necessary to exploit unconventional energy resources along with conventional ones to meet the country’s energy requirements. Here we investigate shale gas potential of the Lower Cretaceous Sembar Formation within a large area of the Middle and Lower Indus Basin. The study includes the organic richness, hydrocarbon generative potential, shale thickness and distribution, subsurface depth of studied interval, maturity, volume of hydrocarbon generated and retained per section, and reservoir characteristics of the Sembar shales. Geochemical data show that the TOC of the formation ranges from 0.55 wt.% to 9.48 wt.% with present day generation potential of 0.14- 18.69 mg HC/g rock. The average TOC of immature samples is 1.0 wt.% with a generation potential of 2.88 mg HC/g rock and hydrogen index (HI) of 240 mg HC/g TOC (type III & II/III). Gross thickness of the formation ranges from less than 50 m to more than 1000 m with an average of 300 m in the study area. Subsurface depth (top of the formation) varies between 1000 to 5000 m in platform to foredeep areas. Overburden thickness, geothermal gradient, Tmax and Vitrinite Reflectance data place the formation in oil, wet and dry gas windows at the depths of 2500 m, 3200 m and 3400 m respectively. Based on original generation potential, and average source rock thickness, volume of generated hydrocarbon (gas equivalent) is 242 bcf/section. By taking expulsion (50% of the generated volume) into account and conversion of retained oil into gas through secondary cracking, the retained volume is 103 bcf/section. Average porosity of the formation at reservoir level (3400-4000 m) is 6.0%. Mineralogically, the formation is composed of an average of 42% quartz, 47% clay, 3% calcite and 1% pyrite. Depth for shale gas exploitation in platform areas is about 3500 m, whereas in foldbelt regions, it varies between 1000 to 3000 m.
Keywords: marine gases, Indus Sub-Basins, Pakistan
Citedy By: 5
Measurements of natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rates from different brands of cement used in Pakistan
[PDF] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5567502_Measurements_of_natural_radioactivity_and_radon_exhalation_rates_from_different_brands_of_cement_used_in_Pakistan
Author: Shafiq Mujahid, A Rahim, Safeer Hussain, M Farooq
Journal: Radiation Protection Dosimetry,Vol.130 (2), 2008--Pages 206-212
Abstract: The measurement of activity due to the naturally occurring radionuclide has been carried out in different brands of cement available in Pakistan. The gamma spectra of the collected samples were obtained using high-purity germanium detector and analysed for the presence of 232Th, 238U and 40K. The assessment of radiological hazards due to these radionuclides has also been made. The studies concerning the determination of radon-exhalation rates from these samples of cement were also carried out using CR-39 based NRPB radon dosimeters. The range of activity concentrations were found for 226Ra (from 25.10 ± 1.55 to 52.60 ± 3.20 Bq kg−1), 232Th (from 10.30 ± 0.65 to 30.40 ± 1.70 Bq kg−1) and 40K (from 17.25 ± 1.55 to 292.95 ± 23.05 Bq kg−1). The estimated value of radium equivalent concentration was from 11.16 ± 2.60 to 114.98 ± 7.11 Bq kg−1. The calculated absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose were in the range from 18.54 ± 1.17 to 52.90 ± 3.31 nGy h−1 and 0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.26 ± 0.02 mSv, respectively. The external and internal hazard indices were in the range from 0.11 ± 0.01 to 0.31 ± 0.02 and 0.18 ± 0.01 to 0.45 ± 0.03, respectively. The radon exhalation rates from different brands of cement were found in the range from 3.3 ± 0.7 to 8.1 ± 1.7 mBq kg−1 h−1.
Keywords: radionuclide, gamma spectra, dosimeters, radon exhalation
Citedy By: 21
Morphologic Studies of Fusulinids from Lower Permian of West Pakistan
[PDF] https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/0643g/report.pdf
Author: RC Douglass
Journal: AAPG Bulletin,Vol.52 (3), 1968--Pages 525-526
Abstract: The "Lower Productus Limestone" of West Pakistan yields an abundant and well-preserved fauna of fusulinid Foraminifera. The fusulinids are found in the lower part of the Amb Formation of the Zaluch Group of Early Permian age described by Teichert in 1966. About 50 samples of the fusulinids, collected by C. Teichert in 1961-62 and R. E. Grant in 1964-65, contain the genus Monodiexodina. Each sample of fusulinids is relatively homogeneous in morphologic characters, having a fairly normal distribution of values through a limited range for most characters. There are large differences between many of the samples with little or no overlap in the dimensions of some characters at specified volutions. Distinct species could be described by conventional methods based on a few speci ens or even on reasonably large samples, and statistically meaningful differences could be demonstrated. Cutbill and Forbes' 1967 discussion on the significance of the prolocular diameter and its effect on comparisons by volution has led to a re-evaluation of the data on these samples. Comparison of measurements at equal radii instead of by volution brings out many similarities between samples. For example, two samples that are quite distinct when compared by volution cannot be distinguished at equal radii
Keywords: Lower Productus Limestone, fusulinid Foraminifera, morphologic characters
Citedy By: 4
Computation of monthly average hourly and daily solar radiation incident on a flat tilted surface at Karachi, Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0741983X86900147
Author: Firoz Ahmad, S.A. Husain
Journal: Solar & Wind Technology,Vol.3 (4), 1986--Pages 329-333
Abstract: Monthly average of hourly and daily solar radiation incident upon a tilted, south-facing surface has been computed from the available solar radiation data for twenty-five years (1958–1983) for Karachi. The hourly and daily values of solar radiation on tilted surface are then compared. The difference between the results obtained is noted to be very small. Annual and monthly averages of solar radiation are also evaluated from hourly values besides averages for the heating and cooling seasons.
Keywords: daily solar radiation, Karachi, Pakistan
Citedy By: 3
Computation of monthly average hourly and daily solar radiation incident on a flat tilted surface at Karachi, Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0741983X86900147
Author: Firoz Ahmad, S.A. Husain
Journal: Solar & Wind Technology,Vol.3 (4), 1986--Pages 329-333
Abstract: Monthly average of hourly and daily solar radiation incident upon a tilted, south-facing surface has been computed from the available solar radiation data for twenty-five years (1958–1983) for Karachi. The hourly and daily values of solar radiation on tilted surface are then compared. The difference between the results obtained is noted to be very small. Annual and monthly averages of solar radiation are also evaluated from hourly values besides averages for the heating and cooling seasons.
Keywords: daily solar radiation, Karachi, Pakistan
Citedy By: 3
Analysis of the assessment factors for renewable energy dissemination program evaluation using fuzzy AHP
[PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032110000286
Author: Eunnyeong Heo, Jinsoo Kim, Kyung Jin Boo
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.14 (8), 2010--Pages 2214-2220
Abstract: By 2030, Korean government aims to increase the share of new and renewable energy sources to 11% in the overall primary energy mix, that is, approximately 33 million TOE. However, carefully designed program is needed given the current low level of the share (2.37%, approximately 5.6 million TOE, as of 2007). Therefore, alongside R&D on new and renewable energy technology, establishing an effective dissemination program is also essential. This would require a decision-making base, for which this study established the criteria and factors and assessed the importance of each factor using the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method. Five criteria – technological, market-related, economic, environmental, and policy-related – and a total of seventeen factors were established. From the weights estimation results, we derived four major conclusions regarding the importance of economic feasibility, the advancement of the target technology in the global market, the disagreement between the policy maker and the specialist group, and the application of the results.
Keywords: Renewable energyCriteriaFactorsDissemination programFuzzy AHP
Citedy By: 122
Potential of on-Shore Wind Power in the Coastal Areas of Balochistan, Pakistan
[PDF] http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1260/0309-524X.34.2.167
Author:  Khanji Harijan, Mohammad A. Uqaili, Mujeebuddin Memon
Journal: Wind Engineering,Vol.34 (2), 2010--Pages 
Abstract: Balochistan province has about 800 km long coastline whose continental shelf extends to a distance of 15–40 km. Pakistan Meteorological Department has recorded wind speed for two years at 22 on-shore locations at 10 m and 30 m heights and estimated at 50 m height using power law. The wind duration availability in terms of numbers of hours the wind remained in a particular bin was also calculated by constructing the wind rose diagrams. The mean value of two years has been estimated and used in this study for the construction of wind duration curves for 20 selected locations. Using wind duration curves and Nordex N43/600 wind turbine as reference turbine, theoretical wind power potential at these locations has been estimated. The geographical potential has been estimated considering population density and excluding low wind areas. Finally, the technical potential has been estimated. The theoretical potential at most of the sites is in the range of 1000–1400 full load hours per year. The suitable area for wind turbine installation has been estimated as 7,700 km2. The annual technical potential of centralized grid connected wind power in the coastal area of Balochistan has been estimated as 42.5 TWh, which is about half of the current gross electricity generation in Pakistan.
Keywords: Shore Wind Power, coastal wind, Balochistan, Pakistan, wind turbine
Citedy By: 3
Feasible Wind Power Potential from Costal Line of Sindh Pakistan
[PDF] http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh?docid=20407467-201406-201507080016-201507080016-393-400
Author: Mazhar Hussain Baloch, Ghulam Sarwar Kaloi, Jie Wang
Journal: Research Journal of Applied ,Vol. (), --Pages 393 - 400
Abstract: The energy is the serious issue, directly or indirectly, in the whole practice of advancement, development and existence of all the existing creatures. It plays a very important part in socioeconomic growth and social prosperity of any country, at least 1/3rd of the country has no access of energy like electricity. Globally Pakistan is an electricity lacking country, however deficient in oil and gas. Pakistan is rich in sources like water, coal, wind and solar energy. Electricity is the basic needs of all human’s comfort and in addition to overcome power crises in common, Pakistan desires in the way to utilize its natural power assets similar to hydel power plant, sunlight and wind potential for the generation of electricity. Pakistan has surely considerable latent for exploiting wind energy. Additionally about 1000 km lengthy shoreline in southern and northern hilly areas offers an outstanding reserve of wind potential. The efforts need for utilization of wind energy in the country. This study includes only twenty selected regions of southern regions of Sindh province for power generation from a natural source of wind energy.
Keywords: coastal wind, Sindh, Pakistan, Renewabl Energy
Citedy By: 4
Cost effective solar water heater for energy resource management in developing countries.
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Author: Qureshi, M. A., Moghal, M. R., Hassan, K. M. and Qureshi, S. A.
Journal: New Horizons: Journal of the Institution of Electrical \& Electronics Engineers Pakistan,Vol.44 (1), 2004--Pages 114--120
Abstract: As solar water heater is not a new idea but our basic approach is to reduce cost of the heater, used for domestic purpose, so that utilization of solar energy can reach to a common man. Now-a-days every nation is facing energy crisis and most of the engineers and scientists have devoted themselves to overcome energy problems and to conserve energy by designing machinery which consumes less fuel for specific purposes. A solar water heater is a long-term investment that will save you money and energy for many years. Like other renewable energy systems, solar water heaters minimize the environmental effects of enjoying a comfortable, modern lifestyle. In addition, they provide insurance against energy price increases, help reduce our dependence on foreign oil, and are investments in everyone's future. Solar water heaters do not pollute. By investing in one, you will be avoiding carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and the other air pollution and wastes created when your utility generates power or you burn fuel to heat your household water. When a solar water heater replaces an electric water heater, the electricity displaced over 20 years represents more than 50 tons of avoided carbon dioxide emissions alone. Carbon dioxide traps heat in the upper atmosphere.
Keywords: solar water heater, energy resource management, developing countries. Cost effective
Citedy By: 
The multi-fuel solution for power plants.
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Author: Pathan, M. I., Shaikh, N. A. and Nawaz, Z.
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences,Vol.23 (1), 2004--Pages 99--106
Abstract: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology offers an attractive alternative of conventional pulverized coal and natural gas power generation in terms of cycle efficiency \& emission compliance. But while operating cost is low, the high capital cost of IGCC has threatened its competitiveness. The improvement in turbine, gas clean up and other design addresses the challenge of high capital cost. The competitive nature of power generation industry could threaten the IGCC Technology. For a developing country like Pakistan, it is obligatory that all energy options must be pursued vigorously including coal utilization, which is considered to be one of the major options for the future use.
Keywords: fuel solution, power plants, natural gas power generation, conventional pulverized coal
Citedy By: 
Photocurrent generation through plant microbial fuel cell by varying electrode materials
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Author: Gilani, S. R., Yaseen, A., Zaidi, S. R. A., Zahra, M. and Mahmood, Z
Journal: Journal of Chemical Society of Pakistan, ,Vol.38 (1), 2016--Pages 17-27
Abstract: World is suffering from severe energy crisis and require an efficient renewable energy source. To meet global energy demands, the conservation of renewable energy sources is inevitable. Significant renewable energy can be produced from organic matter that is otherwise considered waste in the form of clean bioelectricity. A less mediator plant microbial fuel cell designed for comparative analysis, power density of two different electrodes; Nickel and Graphite and tested using different local salt marsh grass species Sporobolasarabicus and Cynodondactylon. Both electrodes generated the power density of 23 mW/m2 and 10.7 mW/m2 respectively without using feed solution. In other experiments using feed solution, the power output was also recorded during the period of two months. The maximum power density recorded as 120 mW/m2 and 58mW/m2 respectively from S. arabicus and C. dactylon species. Electrodes coupling with same or different electrode materials checked and current voltage relationship with power recorded before and after the application of plant nutrient solution from 1-8th weeks. Maximum current voltage relationship with power measured around 4-6th week for different electrodes and plant species. Graphite proved best electrode material as compared to Nickel for production of electricity. Two conditions existed in the single chamber configuration, one in which cathode was placed inside the soil near roots to consume oxygen and other was to improve power enhancement using plant nutrient solutions. Ohmic resistance and mass transfer losses could be decreased using membraneless configuration that in fact makes it cost effective because membrane is the primary cost of plant microbial fuel cell. The main reason for not using membrane is that the concentration of oxygen decreases very much in the depth of water or sediment which reduces the need for a membrane. Moreover, the soil or sediment might filter oxygen, acts as PEM and the redox potential of soil also decreases.
Keywords: Comparative analysis, Cynodon dactylon, Graphite, Nickel, PMFC,Sporobolas arabicus
Citedy By: 
Corrosion resistance synergistic performance of alkyd based triplex coating system impregnated with Fe, Zn, Cr and Ti based corrosion inhibitors.
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Author: Bano, H., Mahmood, A. and Kazmi, S. A.
Journal: Journal of Chemical Society of Pakistan,,Vol.38 (1), 2016--Pages 43--55
Abstract: An alkyd polymer based triplex coating system embedded with Iron Oxide, Zinc Chromate and Titanium Dioxide inhibitors was studied to ascertain its corrosion resistance synergistic performance at various anthropogenic and metropolitan sites of Karachi coastal city while accelerated salt spray test was also carried out for reference. Coating performance was ascertained by visual morphological inspection, gloss measurements, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. EDX results substantiated a general increment in oxygen/carbon ratio and revealed that chromium was conspicuously vanished in all exposed coating systems. Diminution trend in gloss value, ex-corporation of inhibitors on the coating surface plus depletion of morphological features witnessed through SEM micrographs and curtailment of ester linkage signals in FTIR spectrum, concluded that an insignificant protection offered by the alkyd triplex coating due to its permeability upon weathering which led to ex-capsulation of inhibitors under moist conditions. Appraisal of these results have furnished an average coating performance correlation of 704 hpy (hours of salt spray test equivalence per year exposure test) at marine test site and 614 hpy at industrial test site in terms of blistering while equivalence mean in terms of rusting were found 815 hpy and 622 hpy at marine and industrial test sites respectively.
Keywords: Alkyd coatings, Corrosion inhibitors, Corrosion resistance, Galvanized steel
Citedy By: 
Aerodynamic analysis of s series wind turbine airfoils by using x foil technique.
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Author: Zaheer, M. A., Munir, M. A., Zahid, I., Osaid, H. M. and Rizwan, M.
Journal: Technical Journal,,Vol.20 (2), 2015--Pages 104--113
Abstract: In order to attain supreme energy from wind turbine economically, blade profile enactment must be acquired. For extracting extreme power from wind, it is necessary to develop rotor models of wind turbine which have high rotation rates and power coefficients. Maximum power can also be haul out by using suitable airfoils at root and tip sections of wind turbine blades. In this research four different S-series airfoils have been selected to study their behavior for maximum power extraction from wind. The wind conditions during the research were ascertained from the wind speeds over Kallar Kahar Pakistan. In order to study the wind turbine operation, the extremely important parameters are lift and drag forces. Therefore an endeavor to study lift force and drag force at various sections of wind turbine blade is shown in current research. In order to acquire the utmost power from wind turbine, highest value of sliding ratio is prerequisite. At various wind speeds, performance of several blade profiles was analyzed and for every wind speed, the appropriate blade profile is ascertained grounded on the utmost sliding ratio. For every airfoil, prime angle of attack is resolute at numerous wind speeds.
Keywords: wind turbine, x foil technique, Kallar Kahar, Pakistan
Citedy By: 
Design, installation and evaluation of solar drip irrigation system at mini dam command area.
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Author: Mongat, A. S., AndAllah-Bakhsh, M. Arshad, Shakoor, A., And Abdul-Hameed and Umm-E-Kalsoom, L. Anjum and Shamim, F.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences,,Vol.52 (), 2015--Pages 483--490
Abstract: For Agricultural development and strong economy of the country, three important factors Land, Energy and Water play an important role. It is necessary to replace the traditional sources of energy with solar power and conventional methods of irrigation with High Efficiency Irrigation Systems (HEIS) to achieve the challenges of agriculture in future. A study was conducted with the objective to install and evaluate the solar operated drip irrigation system in arid zone of Punjab, Pakistan. The performance, efficiency and distribution uniformity of the system was evaluated. An economic analysis was also made to compare the solar operated with the diesel engine operated drip irrigation system. The range of average discharge values of drip was between 0. 0083-0. 00856m3 /hr (8. 3-8. 56lph) at different pressures. For 0. 0083m3 /hr discharge, the emission uniformity was between 85-90 \% , application uniformity was 98-99 \% and distribution uniformity was 99 \% at different pressures (kPa). It was found that solar power unit was more efficient, energy saving and economical. The operational cost of the unit was also very low as compared to diesel system while the initial installation cost of solar operational system was high
Keywords: Agricultural development, economy, drip irrigation, diesel engine, solar power, energy saving
Citedy By: 
A green learning model for teaching requirements engineering course.
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Author: Memon, R. N., Memon, I. and Siyal, F.
Journal: Bahria University Journal of Information & Communication Technologies,Vol.8 (1), 2015--Pages 52--57
Abstract: Nowadays, severe environmental issues are faced by our planet mainly because of increase in consumption of energy, and waste from industry.
Keywords: 
Citedy By: 
Passive control of mixing by flow pulsation in a curved pipe.
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Author: Mangi, F. H., Mangi, K. H., Samo, S. R., Jatoi, A. R. and Siyal, Z. A.
Journal: Quaid-e-Awam University Research Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology,,Vol.14 (1), 2015--Pages 25--32
Abstract: Mixing enhancement usually referred to the reduction of non-homogeneities. Mixing operations are encountered widely throughout industrial processes in different energy systems and chemical reactors involving physical and chemical change. The requirement of this process has always been to obtain an energy efficient and environmental friendly mixing in multifunctional heat exchangers/chemical reactors. Poor mixing can affect the product quantity and quality as well as other losses. The passive control of mixing enhancement is meant to the special surface geometries or fluid additives. This work emphasizes on the tracer deformation and analysis of cross-sectional concentration distribution due to imposition of pulsation. An experimental system comprising of a pulsation generator (scotch-yoke mechanism), a 90° curved pipe and a tracer injection system is used. Measurements are carried out by a Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique. To avoid laser light diffraction effects during experiments, a T-shaped flow divider are installed at the exit of the 90°curved pipe. The measurements are carried out for a range of steady Reynolds number Rest 1420-10001 and different values of Womersley frequency parameter a for a velocity amplitude ratio 13 = 1. Tracer distribution due to pulsation in a curved pipe flow is observed. Effects of pulsation on the mixing in laminar flow regime are analyzed. The results showed an important and encouraging role of pulsatile flow on mixing enhancement.
Keywords: chemical reactors, energy systems, industrial processes, Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique
Citedy By: 
Design and characterization of rectangular stud antenna
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Author: Khan, S., Ahmad, N., Wahid, M., Baloch, B. and Naeem, M.
Journal: Sindh University Research Journal,,Vol.47 (1), 2015--Pages 29--34
Abstract: This paper refers to the investigation and design of Stud (Cup link) Antenna. Studs are part of daily wears. Studs are available in various shapes and designs. To investigate the electromagnetic behavior of studs and its use as antenna, the analysis shows that studs can be used as antenna and it radiates electromagnetic energy from guided medium to free space. A rectangular stud antenna is considered and it parameters e.g. resonant frequency, directivity, radiation efficiency, half power beam width etc are calculated. The effects of dimensions e.g. length, width and thickness of conductor and substrate on resonant frequency, directivity and radiation efficiency are analyzed and it has been observed that these parameters can been modified by changing the dimensions of stud antenna
Keywords: 
Citedy By: 
DFT studies of indium nanoclusters; nanotubes and their interaction with molecular hydrogen.
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Author: Hussain, A., Baig, M. W. and Mustafa, N.
Journal: Nucleus,,Vol.52 (4), 2015--Pages 185--191
Abstract: Density functional theory calculations have been performed on Indium nanoclusters (Inn; n= 3 to 10) to explore the relative stability among their different isomers and interaction with H2. Geometry optimizations starting from initial candidate geometries were performed for each cluster size; so as to determine a few low energy isomers for each size. Clusters with planar configuration and high symmetry are found to be more stable. For n=8; there comes transition from 2D to 3D structures. Energetically favorable isomers of indium nanoclusters for each size were considered to get H2 adsorbed. In general H2 interaction with these clusters is weak but with those comprising of some odd number of atoms i.e. 5; 7 and 9 is considerable. Indium nanotube also indicates H2 adsorption but Eads increases many folds on introduction of defect in the tube. On the basis of DFT investigations; it is suggested that apparently indium nanoclusters and tubes of specific size seem better candidates for materials to store hydrogen
Keywords: Adsorption, Density functional theory, Hydrogen gas, Indium nanoclusters, Indium nanotube
Citedy By: 
Electrical energy saving and management initiatives: A case study of university libraries in KPK, Pakistan
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Author: Hassan, S. Z., Karnal, T., Hassnain, S. R., Ali, H. and Saleem, A.
Journal: Nucleus,,Vol.52 (1), 2015--Pages 1--8
Abstract: Several recent studies show that a significant portion of the electrical energy consumption in educational institutes, residential and business buildings are due to the improper use of electrical appliances. The objective of this paper is to develop a cost effective automated power management system for the academic institutions to reduce the consumption of electrical energy. To this aim, a sensor-based intelligent system and decision making algorithm are proposed. As per algorithm, the system monitors the number of persons, intensity of light, temperature and accordingly controls the behavior of appliances. This paper includes a case study of two university libraries in KPK, Pakistan, namely, University of Engineering and Technology(UET), Peshawar, Abbottabad Campus and Hazara University Mansehra. The analysis of the experimental results concludes that the proposed energy saving system (PESS) is able to provide a significant energy savings.
Keywords: energy savings, electricity consumption, KPK, Pakistan, automated power management system, buildings.
Citedy By: 
Frequency control in CIGRE low voltage distribution network with significant amounts of inverter based generators
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Author: Bhutto, G. M., Keerio, M. U., Talani, R. A. and Buriro, E. A.
Journal: Quaid-e-Awam University Research Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology,,Vol.14 (1), 2015--Pages 19--24
Abstract: Maintaining demand side supply and regulating frequency in power networks are the prime requirements of the modern power systems. The frequency of the power system deviates from its nominal value if there is mismatch between power generation and the consumption. If the active power demand is higher than the active power production in the network, the frequency decreases and vice versa. The increase or the decrease in the frequency can be compensated by balancing the generation and load demands. This is normally done by allocating reserve units or by using inverter based generators such as Battery Energy Storage Devices (BESDs). The main focus of this paper is to control the frequency of the network by providing/absorbing the required/extra amounts of the power by BESDs. The work is done on a simple network and simulations are carried out by using DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0. The procedure of modeling BES which should operate as Battery Energy Storage equipped Static Compensator (BES-STATCOM) developed in DIgSILENT power factory is also described in this paper
Keywords: low voltage distribution network, inverter based generators.
Citedy By: 
Survey of waste collection and its energy generation potential in Nawanshehr, Pakistan
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Author: Bhatti, Z. A., Maqbool, F., Farooq, J., Qayyum, S. and Malik, A. H.
Journal: Science, Technology and Development,,Vol.34 (3), 2015--Pages 130--134
Abstract: The present study highlights the current status of solid waste collection and disposal practices in Nawanshehr, Abbottabad Pakistan along with its possible management. It involved the surveys of different places such as general stores, tailor shops, cotton processing etc, during the month of July to October 2010. It is estimated that an average 7-8 t of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is generated daily of which 2-3 t is collected by the local administration and dumped at “Salhad” solid waste dumping site. This waste can be efficiently used to produce electricity and biogas. Total 3000 t of MSW annually formed which is use to produce 1.9×106 kWhe amount of electricity. Major proportion of the generated MSW goes to open drains of the town and taken away to the Mandrocha Katha by the water flow, worsening the facilities of drinking water quality of this natural water stream, it is further ended into Daurr River. It is recommended that organic waste may be employed for many beneficial uses. With the collaboration of industrialists, a small scale fertilizer factory may be established. This will fulfill the fertilizer demands of local farmers to increase crop productivity.
Keywords: waste collection, energy generation, biogass, Nawanshehr, Pakistan
Citedy By: 
Treatment of textile effluents by low cost agricultural wastes: Batch biosorption study.
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Author: Bhatti, H. N., Sadaf, S. and Aleem, A.
Journal: Journal of Animal and Plant sciences, ,Vol.25 (1), 2015--Pages 284--289
Abstract: The present investigation deals with the treatment of different dye containing effluents by using different agricultural waste biomasses (corncobs, sugarcane bagasse, cotton sticks, sunflower and peanut husk). Samples of textile wastewater were collected from five different textile industries of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Screening test was conducted to select the biosorbent with maximum dye removal efficiency for each of textile wastewater samples. Different process parameters like biosorbent dose, shaking speed and temperature were optimized during the study. The biosorption process using corncobs biomass was found to be good for the removal of dyes up to 79 \% from the one real textile wastewater sample. The biosorption efficiency of adsorbents was maximum at 0.3 g 50mL-1 of adsorbent dose with 120 rpm shaking speed and 303 K temperature. Thermodynamic study was also carried out to evaluate different parameters like free energy change ($\Delta$G°), enthalpy change ($\Delta$H°) and entropy change ($\Delta$S°) and biosorption process was found to be exothermic. Characterization of effluents was carried out before and after the biosorption process to check out the effect of process on the removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS). The results proved that agricultural wastes are good option for the removal of color and COD from real textile effluents.
Keywords: textile effluents, agricultural wastes, Batch biosorption
Citedy By: 
Evaluation of optimal top coat thickness in composite LTA/YSZ thermal barrier coating by comparative stress distribution using finite element method
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Author: Aziz, R., Pasha, R., Nasir, M. A. and Abbas, M.
Journal: Nucleus,Vol.52 (4), 2015--Pages 146--150
Abstract: Demand of high operating temperature in gas turbines for better efficiencies has forced researchers to explore novel materials with improved thermal properties. In this regard; LaTi2Al9O19 (LTA) is recently declared as a brilliant candidate for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Owing to potential advantages like high temperature stability \& low thermal conductivity; researchers are striving to use it for modern gas turbines. An innovative concept of composite ceramic coating (LTA+YSZ) has been introduced to achieve improved set of thermal \& mechanical properties. In this paper; a finite element analysis (FEA) has been employed to observe stress scattering with relatively varying thicknesses of compositional ceramic coats using commercially available software ANSYS. Optimum set of variables has been proposed based on the associative stress state data calculated from FEA results. Radial \& axial stresses ($\sigma$xx; $\sigma$yy) are ascertained for composite system and ultimate values of stress are offered for comparison on quantitative grounds. Elastic strain energy stored in TGO is determined based on FE results to estimate the structural reliability of TBC. Conclusively; trend reveals that both radial \& axial stresses are respectively proportional to increasing \& decreasing thickness of YSZ. Comparing elastic strain energies; maximum life is evaluated in 1:4 for YSZ: LTA which shows that composite layer TBC system have improved stability than single layer system as reported in literature.
Keywords: Ceramic coating, Finite element analysis, Finite element method, Stress distribution, Thermal barrier coating, Thermal barrier coatings
Citedy By: 
Dielectric characterization of XAl204 (X = Mg; Zn; Ni) spinel ceramics.
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Author: Azam, M., Atiq, S., Mustafa, G. M., Riaz, S. and Naseem, S.
Journal: Nucleus,,Vol.52 (4), 2015--Pages 204--208
Abstract: Spherical nanoparticles of XAl204 = Mg; Zn; Ni) ceramics with large surface area and finely distributed grains; were successfully synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method. The formation of spinel structure of X41204 nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Dielectric tangent loss was decreased as the frequency was increased while a slight increase in the dielectric parameters was observed as the temperature was increased; mainly due to the thermally activated charge carriers. The behavior of real and imaginary parts of impedance has also been discussed which confirms the results from the tangent loss plot. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy gives the true stoichiometric at \% and wt \% contents of various elements present in the samples. The grain size of the synthesized sample range from 20-70 nm and were obtained when the samples were sintered at 900 °C for 4 hrs
Keywords: Impedance analysis, Sol-gel, Spinel ceramics,X-ray diffraction, X41204 nanoparticles
Citedy By: 
Performance evaluation of sugarcane stripper for trash recovery.
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Author: Ashfaq, S., Ghafoor, A., Ahmad, M. and Yaqub, Q.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences,,Vol.52 (2), 2015--Pages 491—496,
Abstract: The limited resources of fossil fuels and increasing price of electricity has resulted severe energy crises in Pakistan. Being an agricultural country, Pakistan has huge potential of biomass that can be used as an alternate source to produce energy. In, Pakistan sugarcane trash can be used as one of the available biomass resources for energy production. Nearly 5. 75 million tons of trash per year is available as a biomass in Pakistan. The manual removal of trash is a labor extensive and time consuming process. Sugar cane stripper can be used to remove trash from the sugarcane stalks. Agricultural Mechanization Research Institute (AMRI) Wing, Faisalabad has designed and developed a sugarcane stripper. In this study, the performance evaluation of sugarcane stripper has been carried out for the recovery of sugar cane trash for energy production. The experiments were conducted on three varieties of sugarcane V1 as (COL1148), V2 as (FH-237) and V3 as (MO-240), three sprocket speeds NS1 as (250 rpm), NS2 as (200 rpm)and NS3 as (150 rpm) and three blower speeds NB1 as (750 rpm), NB2 as (1000 rpm), and NB3 as (1500 rpm). The cost comparison of sugarcane stripper has also been carried out in comparison with conventional (manual) method of de-trashing. The result showed that the best combination to get maximum sugarcane stripper efficiency of 79 \% was using sprocket speed of NS3 (150rpm) and blower speed of NB3 (1500rpm) for all the varieties of sugarcane. The operational cost of sugarcane stripper and conventional method were calculated as Rs. 17120/ha and Rs. 19200/ha, respectively.
Keywords: biomass, sugarcane stripper,
Citedy By: 
A new itinerary planning approach among multiple mobile agents in wireless sensor networks (WSN) to reduce energy consumption
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Author: Alouil, I., Kazarl, O., Kahloull, L. and Servigne, S.
Journal: International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security,Vol.7 (2), 2015--Pages 116--122
Abstract: one of the important challenges in wireless sensors networks (WSN) resides in energy consumption. In order to resolve this limitation, several solutions were proposed. Recently, the exploitation of mobile agent technologies in wireless sensor networks to optimize energy consumption attracts researchers. Despite their advantage as an ambitious solution, the itineraries followed by migrating mobile agents can surcharge the network and so have an impact on energy consumption. Many researchers have dealt with itinerary planning in WSNs through the use of a single agent (SIP: Single agent Itinerary Planning) or multiple mobile agents (MIP: Multiple agents Itinerary Planning). However, the use of multi-agents causes the emergence of the data load unbalancing problem among mobile agents, where the geographical distance is the unique factor motivating to plan the itinerary of the agents. The data balancing factor has an important role especially in wireless sensor networks multimedia that owns a considerable volume of data size. It helps to optimize the tasks duration and thus optimizes the overall answer time of the network. In this paper, we provide a new MIP solution (GIGM-MIP) which is based not only on geographic information but also on the amount of data provided by each node to reduce the energy consumption of the network. The simulation experiments show that our approach is more efficient than other approaches in terms of task duration and the amount of energy consumption.
Keywords: wireless sensors networks, energy consumption
Citedy By: 
Analysis of schemes to improve efficiency of solar cells.
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Author: Ahmed, S., Khalid, M., Khalid, M., Aslam, M. I. and Rasheed, H.
Journal: Bahria University Journal of Information & Communication Technologies,Vol.8 (1), 2015--Pages 105--109
Abstract: Due to the presence of different losses, the highest efficiency obtained using solar cells is less than 30 \% , which is quite low as compare to other conventional energy resources. Variety of schemes has been proposed in the literature to improve overall efficiency of a solar cell. This paper presents a review of different schemes proposed for enhancing solar cell efficiency. In this work, we analyze the effect of introducing transparent conducting oxide layer, front and rear texturing, back surface field, multi-junctions, top service passivation, selective ohmic contact, quantum dots, and antireflection coating on the performance of solar cells. We also review major factors that limit the conversion efficiency in solar cells and their remedies which could be incorporated with various schemes to enhance efficiency of solar cells.
Keywords: solar cells, antireflection coating
Citedy By: 
Green net: Agent based energy load prediction techniques for smart grid.
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Author:  Afzaal, A., Nazir, M., Ali, A. H. and Sabah, A.
Journal: Bahria University Journal of Information & Communication Technologies,,Vol.8 (1), 2015--Pages 27--32
Abstract: To maintain the reliable delivery of energy with increasing demand is becoming a challenging task with such a dumb electricity distribution system. The ongoing reformation of ancient distribution infrastructure is an effort to enhance its performance so that energy can be consumed with greater proficiency. Smart grid is an advanced concept, which adds intelligence, networking and bi-directional communication features to the existing energy infrastructure. To efficiently utilize the system capabilities, prediction of upcoming energy load on the network is an important task. With a more accurate load forecasting, the smart grid can enhance the management of its resources and expand the economics of energy commerce with electricity markets. A new agent based energy load prediction technique is proposed in this paper, which will predict the load of smart home, one hour prior use. Agents are divided into a group of experts, which will use weighted average prediction methodology to predict the upcoming demand of energy. Simulation results show that by implementing the proposed methodology; we can get 80 percent accurate results of load prediction that will make the electricity grid more reliable and efficient.
Keywords: electricity distribution system, energy infrastructure, energy load prediction technique
Citedy By: 
Structural and magnetic studies of NixCoo8-xMno.2Fe204 Nanoparticles prepared via Co-precipitation rout.
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Author: Adeela, N., Maaz, K., Khan, U., Iqba, M., Hussainl, M., Nisar, A., Ahmad, M. and Karim, S.
Journal: Nucleus,Vol.52 (4), 2015--Pages 151--154
Abstract: Ni substituted Mn-Co ferrite nanoparticles (Ni„Co0.8 \_ ; Nno.2Fe204); with doping content (x) varying from 0 to 0.1; have been synthesized via co precipitation route. X-ray diffraction reveals the formation of single phase spinel ferrite structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy exhibits presence of two absorption bands appearing at 500-600 cm` which are characteristic feature of spinel ferrites. Microstructural analyses were carried out by using scanning electron microscope; transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope which determine the particle size and chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. From TEM results; average particle size was determined to be about 20 nm; which is in good agreement with XRD results. Magnetic results show increase in coercivity and decrease in saturation magnetization with increasing doping concentration
Keywords: Coercivity, Ni doped co-Mn ferrites, Saturation magnetization, Structural properties
Citedy By: 
Screening wetland plants for nutrient uptake and bioenergy feedstock production.
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Author: Zhao, F., Liu, C., Rafiq, M. T., Ding, Z., Zeng, Z., Aziz, R. and Yang, X.
Journal: International Journal of Agriculture and Biology,,Vol.16 (1), 2014--Pages 213--216
Abstract: The constructed wetlands are considered as low cost systems for treating municipal, industrial and agricultural wastewater. However, there is limited information about the subsequent disposal of how to deal with the harvested biomass. This study was conducted to investigate the phyto-uptake potential of nitrogen and phosphorus of six perennial wetland plants and their biomass potential for bioenergy use. One square meter of aboveground part of each plant species was harvested in triplicate and weighed to determine the biomass. Subsamples were prepared to determine nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents. Results indicated that the biomass of giant reed (Arundo donax) was up to 5.59 kg m-2 and its phyto-uptake of N and P in the aboveground tissues was also the highest one followed by green reed (Phragmites (sp.)). Giant reed and green reed had higher calorific value (about 18 MJ kg-1), which was significantly higher than umbrella plant, canna and alligator flag (P = 0.05). Therefore, giant reed and green reed could be the preferential wetland plants for nutrient phyto-uptake and bioenergy feedstock usage
Keywords: bioenergy feedstock production, bioenergy feedstock usage, wetland plants.
Citedy By: 
Energy production from waste-water using microbial fuel cells.
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Author: Shah, S. H. and Raja, I. A.
Journal: Science Vision,,Vol.19 (42737), 2014--Pages 55--62
Abstract: Natural energy sources like fossil fuels are depleting due to increased human activities. Different types of alternatives are being explored to solve this problem with the consideration that they are sustainable. There are many environmental concerns connected with fossil fuel burning which after oxidation processes release greater amounts of carbon emissions in atmosphere. Now the trends are shifting towards exploiting renewable energy options, such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, biogas, and bioelectricity. Bioelectricity is harvested from organic substrates using Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) that operate on oxidation reduction (redox) reactions. MFCs produce electricity in the presence of microorganisms from biodegradable substances. Waste-water contains enormous amount of organic matter that can be oxidized in MFC for electricity harvesting. In this review, the main focus is made on the applicability of microbial fuels cells for simultaneous waste-water treatment and electricity production.
Keywords: Microbial Fuel Cell, bacteria, power, electricity, waste-water.
Citedy By: 
Analyses on utilisation of solar energy as a sustainable source of clean water production
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Author: Shah, S. A., Rafique, S. and Jumani, M. S.
Journal: Sindh University Research Journal,,Vol.46 (3), 2014--Pages 315--318
Abstract: Availability of clean water depends on either availability of naturally clean water or supply of sustainable source of energy that can be utilized for clean water production process. Solar energy can be utilized as a sustainable energy means for clean water production process. Prospects of solar energy utilization for water pumping and desalination exist in Pakistan on account of availability of solar energy for most of the day hours and round-the-year. Therefore, research survey is carried out of thermal and solar powered clean water production processes in Pakistan. In this paper, a comparative analysis of conventional thermal powered and solar powered clean treatment processes is carried on parameters of production costs, environmental sustainability and self-contained nature of solar powered clean water production process.
Keywords: solar energy utilization, clean water production, water pumping, desalination
Citedy By: 
Prospective study of solar energy as a sustainable energy source of electrical power generation.
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Author: Shah, S. A., Jumani, M. S. and Rafique, S.
Journal: Sindh University Research Journal,,Vol.46 (4), 2014--Pages 469--472
Abstract: Utilization of solar energy sources in electrical power generation sector is essential on account of its capability to meet the needs of environmental unsustainability, energy depletion and costs increases. Solar energy source utilization is therefore considered a vital element for ensuring reliability and uninterrupted supply of required electrical power output in Pakistan. The fossil fuels in comparison to solar energy are unsustainable sources on account of their finite nature, environmental unsustainability and unstable production costs. In order to establish this proposition it is essential to evaluate these parameters of thermal and solar powered electrical power generation processes in electrical power generation sector. Therefore, research is carried out to analyze the parameters of input energy requirement, production costs and environmental sustainability of both the thermal and solar electrical power generation processes. The result of the research are analysed for determination are promising for better prospects of medium and large scale solar electrical power generation in Pakistan.
Keywords: solar energy, electrical power generation, thermal power generation, production costs, Pakistan
Citedy By: 
Social impacts of biogas plants on rural communities of Sindh, Pakistan.
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Author: Sajjad, A., Khan, L. A., Makhdum, A. H. and Imran, A.
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Biology,,Vol.2 (2), 2014--Pages 80--85
Abstract: Biogas is a very important alternate renewable energy source for the Pakistan where more than 60 \% population lives in rural areas having no access to natural gas. Government aims to exploit the maximum potential of biogas plants within next 10 years. In conjunction with the efforts, United Nations Development Program (UNDP) has installed 2,000 biogas plants in areas along Indus River which were affected by heavy flood during monsoon of 2010. Measuring social impacts of any development project is an important tool to understand its adaptability in any community. The social benefits of biogas plants have widely been accepted in different parts of the world but these may vary across the communities and geographical areas. Current study is a first empirical contribution towards understanding the social impacts of biogas plants on rural communities of Sindh, Pakistan. Besides improving kitchen environment and reducing the disease incidences, biogas plants also significantly reduced fuel wood consumption and its cost (ca. 48 \% ) without consuming extra working hours.
Keywords: biogas plants, Social impacts, rural communities, Sindh, Pakistan.
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Potential of biogas technology using different biomasses in developing countries.
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Author: Mahmood, Q. and Shah, F. A.
Journal: Science Vision,,Vol.20 (1), 2014--Pages 43--56
Abstract: Developing countries are facing critical energy crises. Ever-increasing prices of fossil fuels have resulted in serious impacts on the lives of common people in many developing countries. The environmental phenomena are being seriously affected consequent to increased use of fossil fuels. The renewable energy offers better choice as it is clean source of energy. In view of the limited supply of fossil fuels, biofuels have been considered as future fuels. The demand of biogas technology is increasing and various researchers are trying to improve it. These are lowcost systems and can be run with very small budget. An increased focus is being placed over the use of anaerobic treatment for a number of reasons, including; energy recovery; minimizing the harmful effects of suspended solids; cutting down the cost of waste treatment to almost half over aerobic systems; resultant digestate to be used for land farming; and its compactness as a treatment system. This review focuses on the low cost bioenergy sources in developing countries of the world. Various practical aspects of biogas generation and factors influencing it have been presented. The potential of various biomasses, especially algal biomass, has also been discussed.
Keywords: energy crises, biofuels, biogas technology, developing countries.
Citedy By: 
Case study of energy saving in an industrial setup by replacing conventional bulbs with led lights.
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Author: Khanam, S. and Hanif, A.
Journal: Nucleus,Vol.51 (3), 2014--Pages 373--378
Abstract: Lighting accounts for roughly one-fifth of global electricity consumption. The demand for energy is increasing day by day with increase in population, change in life style, and change in technology. This growing demand led to energy crisis which is the biggest threat for economic stability for developing countries like Pakistan. This crisis has badly affected the everyday life and industry. To overcome energy shortfall one solution is to focus on energy conservation. Significant energy savings can be achieved by reducing energy consumption by artificial lighting which has potential of energy saving by using efficient lighting technologies such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). A case study is carried out for an industrial setup to compare the performance, suitability and financial effects of conventional bulbs and LED lights in an industrial setup. A new lighting scheme has been designed by using DIALux 4.11 simulation software based on international standards of Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA).The conventional bulbs on the shop floor has been replaced with LED lights as per software design. After hardware installation it is revealed that by adopting this lighting scheme there is 45 \% of energy savings and user satisfaction with financial savings of Rs. 912,711 per year having 3.78 years pay back period that justifies use of LEDs as per proposed lightning design for general lighting applications.
Keywords: energy saving, industrial setup, electricity consumption, efficient lighting technologies
Citedy By: 
Exploring the linkages between energy use and economic growth in Pakistan.
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Author: Kakar, A., Ahmed, M., Mahmood, A. and Sarwar, B.
Journal: Journal of Applied and Emerging Sciences,Vol.3 (2), 2014--Pages 192--196
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the linkages between energy use, and economic activities in Pakistan. This study tested the interrelationship among the variables using the Multiple Regression analysis through the estimation of log-linear model. The empirical results of this study suggest that the electricity consumption is one of the most significant variables in the economic performance of Pakistan followed by the population growth, Foreign Direct Investment and trade openness.
Keywords: population growth, Foreign Direct Investment and trade openness, energy use, economic growth, Pakistan
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Wind speed analysis of some coastal areas near Karachi.
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Author: Hussain, M. A., Abbas, S., Ansari, M. R. K., Zaffar, A. and Jan, B.
Journal: Proceedings of Pakistan Academy of Sciences,,Vol.51 (1), 2014--Pages 83--91
Abstract: This communication attempts to analyze Karachi coastal area (Paradise Point 24.84 \textordmasculine E, 66.77 \textordmasculine N)) for an understanding of underlying probability distribution. It has been found that at this site the annual wind speed at a height of 30 meters remains very close to 7 m/s whereas at a height of 61 meters the wind speed reaches to 9 m/s. Moreover, the wind mostly remains directed towards southwest. Furthermore, the annual average wind speed follows Weibull distribution and the annual average wind speed goes on increasing with the passage of time. Maximum energy together with the energy density for different values of the wind mill blade diameters is also calculated. Our analysis shows that the wind speed is increasing as a consequence of global climate change. Though the global climate change has created many threats to the humanity by influencing the local urban microclimate but the positive aspect of this finding is that the increase in wind speed will increase the feasibility and economic viability of the construction of wind farms near Karachi coast and offshore. Of course these calculations will be useful for urban and energy planners.
Keywords: Wind speed analysis, coastal areas, Karachi, Pakistan
Citedy By: 
Greening the networks: A comparative analysis of different energy efficient techniques.
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Author: Arshad, M. J., Saeed, S. S., Javed, N. and Durrani, A. I.
Journal: Nucleus,,Vol.51 (2), 2014--Pages 233--238
Abstract: From a room electric bulb to the gigantic backbone networks energy savings have now become a matter of considerable concern. Issues such as resource depletion, global warming, high energy consumptions and environmental threats gave birth to the idea of green networking. Serious efforts have been done in this regard on large scale in the ICT sector. In this work first we give an idea of how and why this modern technology emerged. We then formulate a precise definition of the term green technology. We then discuss some leading techniques which are promising to produce “green-results” when implemented on real time network systems. These technologies are viewed from different perspectives e.g. hardware implementations, software mechanisms and protocol changing's etc. We then compare these techniques based on some pivotal points. The main conclusion is that a detailed comparison is needed for selecting a technology to implement on a network system.
Keywords: energy efficient techniques, energy savings, energy consumption
Citedy By: 
Harvesting electrical energy from water supply tank.
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Author: Ali, F. and Arbab, M. N.
Journal: Sindh University Research Journal,,Vol.46 (2), 2014--Pages 169--174
Abstract: Efficiency plays an important role while considering any practical system. Generally electrical means are used to pump water into water supply tanks. At day time the water is allowed to rush through the distribution pipe and is supplied to the consumers. This supply is periodic (almost twice a day) and for a time duration of two hours. In country like Pakistan where we are faced with energy crises its role can be manipulated, and with certain modifications and additions the available potential energy can be utilized to generate electrical power as a byproduct in addition to water supply. This would make the system highly efficient, economical and we would have energy recovery from the system. This energy can be either utilized directly or can be stored in batteries for later use.
Keywords: electrical energy, water supply tank, Pakistan
Citedy By: 
Minimizing natural gas consumption through solar water heating
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Author: Ahmed, S., Lohano, M., Javed, M. A. and Waqas, A.
Journal: Science Vision,,Vol.19 (42737), 2014--Pages 79--84
Abstract: Natural gas has 43.2 \% share in Pakistan's energy mix, while 18.7 \% of the total natural gas is being consumed by the domestic sector. Statistical data shows that over the last ten years gas consumption by the domestic sector has increased from 144 to 232 billion cubic feet. Pakistan is facing extreme shortage of natural gas, especially in winters due to increased demand in domestic sector for space- and water heating. Utilization of solar energy resource can effectively contribute towards shifting natural gas utilization from domestic to industrial sector of the country. This study helped analyze the quantity of natural gas saved and GHG reduction and economic benefits obtained due to shifting to solar water heating. Results of the study showed that by utilizing single unit of evacuated tube solar water heater in Quetta, 7.7 mmBtu of natural gas can be saved with net present value (NPV) of PKR 243,310 and 10 tones of GHG is saved from entering into the atmosphere. RETScreen, evacuated tube solar water heater, net present value.
Keywords: natural gas consumption, solar water heating, Quetta, Pakistan, solar energy
Citedy By: 
Energy and emission benefit analysis of solar powered electrical power generation in Pakistan.
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Author: Shah, S. A., Daudpoto, J. and Abbasi, A. F.
Journal: Sindh University Research Journal,,Vol.45 (2), 2014--Pages 417--420
Abstract: An analysis of solar power generation and CO2 emission reductions for a site at Sukkur, Pakistan is carried out to demonstrate the capability of solar powered power generation as an alternative valuable energy source to conventional fossil fuelled power generation systems. In this paper, energy and emission analyses are used as means for an estimation of the amount of electrical power that can be produced and along with CO2 emissions reduction per specific area per time, if solar energy is used as an alternative fuel for power generation. The results show solar potential is more than adequate for electrical power production to meet the local electricity needs in environmentally sustainable manner on account of considerable amount of emissions that could be avoided accordingly.
Keywords: Carbon dioxide emission, Electrical power, Emissions reduction, Energy crisis, Environmental sustainability, Solar power
Citedy By: 
Electricity consumption for energy conservation in office buildings in Lahore-Pakistan
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Author: Saeed, Khan, A., Arif, S. and Mushtaq, M.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Science,,Vol.65 (2), 2013--Pages 243--246
Abstract: It has become a popular practice to design highly glazed high rise office buildings in Lahore. The electricity consumption in these buildings is becoming a severe problem in the absence of climatic considerations. Therefore, simulations become a need to evaluate such type of buildings for energy conservation. This paper presents analysis of electricity consumption for typical highly glazed office building in Lahore through simulations process. The parameters selected for simulation were the orientation, shape of building, elements of fa \c c ade such as windows, their size and the type of glazing. The paper concludes that highly glazed buildings require huge electricity than the buildings designed with climatic considerations
Keywords: Electricity, Energy conservation, Glazing, Lahore, Office buildings, Pakistan, Simulations
Citedy By: 
Comparison of energy and yield parameters in maize crop.
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Author: Memon,S. Q., Mirjat, M. S., Mughal, A. Q., Amjad, N. and Ibupoto, K. A.
Journal: Science, Technology and Development,,Vol.32 (3), 2013--Pages 244--250
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine direct and indirect input energy in maize production and to investigate the efficiency of energy consumption in maize crop. Result showed that emergence percent, plant height, number of grains per cob and grain yield were the highest in deep tillage as compared to conventional and zero tillage. Total energy input and output were the highest in deep tillage with NPK @ 150-75-75kg/ha. The net energy gain was found the highest in deep tillage followed by conventional tillage and the lowest net energy gain in zero tillage
Keywords: Deep tillage, Energy, Maize yield, Zero tillage
Citedy By: 
Energy conservation through energy efficient motors in Pakistan's industrial sector.
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Author: Baloch, M. H., Maheshwari, M. K. and Memon, A. A.
Journal: Sindh University Research Journal, ,Vol.45 (3), 2013--Pages 501--506
Abstract: Pakistan is facing the electricity crises in present time. Globally, it is seen that many countries use the energy efficiency standards for electric motors on voluntarily and mandatorily regulation basis. This paper presents the analysis of motors in industrial sector where the existing motors are compared and replaced with energy efficient motors. The result comes with less than 4 years payback. For countries like Pakistan where 8 to 10 hours load shedding in urban areas and 10-12 hours load shedding in rural area with deficit of 6000MW to 8000MW reduce the socio-economic development, so it is necessary to optimize the efficiency of electric motors installed in different industrial sectors.
Keywords: Efficient motors, Energy conservation, Energy survey, Industrial motors, Pakistan
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Bioethanol: A sustainable and environment friendly solution for Pakistan.
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Author: Arshad, M.
Journal: Science Vision,,Vol.16 (1), 2013--Pages 21--26
Abstract: Ethanol has the potential to reduce total dependence on fossil fuels for energy needs and mitigate environmental pollution. Presently, it is substituting approximately 3 \% of the fossil-based gasoline consumed world over. In Pakistan, bioethanol is produced through fermentation of sugarcane molasses. Petrol consumption in is approximately 1.6 million tons, and 10 \% blending of ethanol can give rise to 160,000 tons of fuel ethanol consumption. Pakistan has the capacity to produce this quantity of ethanol from sugarcane molasses. By implementing an ethanol blending programme, the environmental benefits, particularly reduced emission of greenhouse gases, can be achieved. This will also help to meet the future energy needs as well as save the national exchequer.
Keywords: Bioethanol, Energy needs, Environmental pollution, Fossil fuels, Sugercane molasses
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Impact of biogas technology in the development of rural population.
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Author: Ali, S., Zahra, N., Nasreen, Z. and Usman, S.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Analytical & Environmental Chemistry,Vol.14 (2), 2013--Pages 65--74
Abstract: Biogas technology is useful technology to produce a renewable, high-quality fuel i.e. biogas. In Rural areas people use biomass fuels (firewood and dried dung) for meeting their energy utilization demands. This demand is fulfilled by deforestation and land degradation which results in different health and societal problems and also cause excessive emission of greenhouse gases. The rural population of developing countries is in dire need of biogas for cooking, lighting, heating and feedstock etc. The biogas production derives from various agricultural resources, such as manure and harvest remains enormously available. Biogas technology represents a sustainable way to produce energy for household, particularly in developing countries. It can be cost-effective and environment friendly technology for the people in rural areas. So, Biogas can be a best substitute of biomass fuels for use in rural areas. This review evaluates the use of biogas in developing rural areas and glances at problems and challenges as well as benefits and success factors.
Keywords: biogass technology, rural population, biomass fuels, agricultural resources
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Energy crises and solutions.
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Author: Ali, I.
Journal: Science, Technology and Development,,Vol.32 (4), 2013--Pages 319--327
Abstract: Energy consumption is one of the parameters for measuring the prosperity of a country. Energy situation of Pakistan has been critical for the last few years as the reserves of natural resources of energy are depleting at a very fast rate, resulting in the current energy crises and load shedding, badly affecting industrial and agricultural growth. Based on the observations and experience, energy resources of the country have been discussed, emphasising on the utilisation of indigenous resources, particularly, coal and hydel resources for minimising dependence on imported energy. Research and development work, carried out in the country on various fuels, has been discussed. Among them coal briquetting, coal carbonization (coking) of Sharigh coal, extraction of chemicals and desulphurisation of Pakistani lignites have been discussed. Studies on alternate/renewable and non-conventional sources of energy have also been presented with special reference to bio-gas, solar and wind energies, etc.
Keywords: Coal briquetting, Energy, Hydel power, Pakistan
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A review of mineral carbonation by enhanced weathering.
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Author: Saeed, A.
Journal: Science, Technology and Development,,Vol.31 (3), 2012--Pages 195--201
Abstract: Climate change mitigation efforts have so far failed to achieve rapid rates of de-carbonisation. A technical possibility can still be realised. However, the long residence time of CO2 in the atmosphere would continue the warming trend for the foreseeable future even if emissions were immediately cut to zero. Geoengineering methods provide a useful complement to mitigation and adaptation. The emission of CO2 from power stations operating on fossil fuel and other sources can be handled by only three types of storage technologies including: (1) ocean storage, (2) geological storage (geosequestration), and (3) CO2 mineralization or mineral carbonation (geomimicry). This last option provides a permanent solution to storing CO2 safely on a geological time scale. The high cost and elevated energy requirements are preventing this technology from reaching industrial scale. Ultramafic complexes and serpentinite bodies are major sources of magnesium-rich minerals like olivine and serpentine, which can be carbonated by using CO2. The ultramafic rocks of the Great Serpentinite Belt (GSB), northern New South Wales, Australia, have been identified as a high-potential feedstock for mineral carbonation. These deposits indicate variable degrees of carbonation. The source of carbon in ultramafic rocks hosted magnesite veins and deposits are still under debate but agreement appears to be emerging on their near surface formation at low temperature pressure condition. The petrographic and geochemical studies on serpentinite and magnesite have revealed the possibilities of finding the agent/catalyst that could enhance the process of carbonation by using the atmospheric CO2. The list of advantages for Mineral Carbonation over alternative methods for large scale CO2 sequestration is quite long and the fact that Pakistan has substantial amount of serpentine, for example, in Taleri Mohammad Jan village near Hindubagh, opens up the opportunities to carry forward the study on Mineral Carbonation in Pakistan and this could reveal highly effective results.
Keywords: Geo-sequestration, Mineral carbonation, Pakistan, Review, Serpentinite, Weathering
Citedy By: 
Renewable energy in Pakistan: Opportunities and challenges.
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Author: Mirza, I. A., Ahmed, S. and Khalil, M. S.
Journal: Science Vision,,Vol.16 (0), 2012--Pages 13--20
Abstract: Most of the countries around the world have realized that the key to attaining and maintaining prosperity and sovereignty is having independence and self reliance in access to and subsequent use of energy. To address the global challenges, the energy system needs to undergo a transformation from fossil-fuels to renewable energy and energy efficient technologies. Pakistan has a huge potential for harnessing renewable energy and its share in the electricity mix has to be increased to achieve energy security. Security issues and circular debt are the key challenges that need to be addressed to promote on-grid renewable energy through private sector. Around 38 \% of the total Pakistani population remains without access to electricity. Fifty four per cent of the rural population currently has no access to electricity, forcing them to live a sub-standard life of poverty and social inequity. Microfinance and other innovative financial tools need to be evolved to promote rural electrification through renewable energies.
Keywords: Electricity, Energy efficient technologies, Pakistan, Renewable energy, Rural electrification, Security issue
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A review of coal and water resources of Pakistan.
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Author: Malkani, M. S.
Journal: Science, Technology and Development,,Vol.31 (3), 2012--Pages 202--218
Abstract: Pakistan represents Pre-Cambrian to recent strata with different tectonometallic and sedimentary basins. Pakistan has large reserves of coal but the deposits need to be exploited for provincial and national development. Coal resources and their discoveries are necessary in order to meet increasing demands. Share of coal in energy sector of Pakistan has increased from 6.5 \% (2003-04) to 7.6 \% (2008-09) and but later fell back to 6.7 \% (2010-11). Considering growing energy needs, this figure should have been more than its predecessor. Balochistan province tops coal production with a 58 \% share. Pakistan is ranked 7th internationally regarding lignitic coal reserves but, unluckily, Pakistan steel industry has imported from 2.84mt to 4.27mt coal per year between 2006 and 2011. This expenditure can be saved and spent on research and technology development. Furthermore, thermal power plants should be installed to use indigenous coal reserves to increase electrical power supply, keeping in view the population increase. Developments for coal resources are necessary due to increasing energy demand in Pakistan, whereas in Pakistan, many coal fields remain under-developed. To develop these coalfields, it is necessary to create the technology to use the mixed lignitic, subbituminous and bituminous coal because majority of the reserves are lignitic in Pakistan. The Thar coal deposit of Sindh is lignitic and available in grand quantity. Its development should be started on trial basis initially as vertical shaft mining method. Alternatively, open pit mining could be opted for but ground water may cause trouble in this regard. Pakistan has mountaineous areas to store rain water and plain areas for irrigation but most of surface water is being wasted as flood. The construction of major dams has mostly been hampered for a variety of reasons. As population increases, construction of smaller dams in all provinces, districts and even tehsil levels proportionally increases. Furthermore, at the mouth of main stream/nalas/rud streaming from mountains, radial tributaries may be constructed in Daman/barren lands to provide water for cultivation. Water resources wasting as flood begs for construction of small dams especially in Kohat and Potwar (upper Indus); Sulaiman (middle Indus) and Kirthar (lower Indus) basins and Balochistan basin of Pakistan which holds its vast plain areas. The main purposes and goals of the present study are to present handy and brief information based on previous and recent wide spread work and also recent discoveries. Furthermore, water resources and their dam constructions are also vital for the development of Pakistan due to increasing population. Due to these reasons, here coal and water resources are briefly being discussed.
Keywords: Coal resources, Dense population, Energy, Pakistan, Review, Water dams, Water resources
Citedy By: 
Biodiesel production from algae.
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Author: Khola, G. and Ghazala, B.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Botany,,Vol.44 (1), 2012--Pages 379--381
Abstract: Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for biodiesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth \& rsquo;s surface is covered with water, thus algae would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative biodiesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of biodiesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of biodiesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards biodiesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of biodiesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for biodiesel production than the comparing species.
Keywords: Algae, Biodiesel, Cladophora,Oedogonium, Spirogyra
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Powering the people beyond 2050.
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Author: Khan, N. and Abas, N.
Journal: Science, Technology and Development,,Vol.31 (2), 2012--Pages 133--151
Abstract: Accessible energy resources are declining due to increasing population, growing demands and depleting fossil fuel reserves. Worldwide utilities deregulation practices, privatisation, globalisation and political unrests are forcing individual nations to think of their energy outreach. Average energy consumption of 32 \% of us all is as high as 6795kWh/yr/person whilst just 1313kWh/yr/person for remaining 68 \% people. Oil and gas peaking fears from 2010 to 2017 and depletion by 2050 to 2060 are leading the individual countries to follow a blind race to explore and harness new energy sources i.e. the nuclear energy. Global energy consumption rate is about 474x1018J out of which 82 \% is derived from fossil fuels and 18 \% from renewable energy resources. Annual global power consumption is about 15TW which is less than 1 \% of daily solar power supply. Sun shines earth with 89PW that we receive at rate 1321 to 1412W/m2. In addition to continued natural solar power supply we will have coal and uranium reserves at least up to middle of next century. Technical analysis and engineering judgment shows there is not any immediate threat to human survival due to food and energy; however, it will not be available as much economic as oil. Apart from conventional measures like increasing machine efficiency, improving efficient energy use, promoting energy conservation, opting austerity and frugality, we also need to explore unconventional natural energy resources. This paper introduces two novel, unconventional energy resources consisting of earth batteries and atmospheric electricity. This work concludes to join the global grand energy transition (GET) effort by adopting 100 \% renewable energy policy 2050.
Keywords: Energy crisis, Energy resources, Pakistan, Renewable energy
Citedy By: 
An eco-green building: Parameters and constraints.
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Author: Hussain, M.
Journal: Environ Monitor,,Vol.12 (42861), 2012--Pages 7--9
Abstract: Concept of sustainable development has become the todays doctrine as against idea of economic growth in the recent past. Undoubtedly the humanity had embarked upon enhancing the pace of progress and prosperity without caring for the natural environment. Now nations of the world have realized that for sustainable development both environment and development have to proceed together on basis of mutual respect for each other. Therefore, it is imperative that the developmental projects must be economically viable, environmentally benign and socially acceptable. Buildings form part of developmental plans. These are constructed for multifarious needs like residential, office, manufacturing, cultural, educational, recreational, hotel and restaurant. These should be constructed in a sustainable manner with a view to fulfill their respective purpose. Important parameters for an eco-green building are provision of essential utility services, sufficient greenery, efficient energy system, sustainable temperature, proper fresh air ventilation, attractive colour scheme, comfortable space, contemporary design, safety \& security, building codes, optimal utilization of construction materials and national \& global (ASHARE) heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration HVACR standards. The occupants should enjoy occupying their abodes and live or work there in accordance with their whims \& wishes. Implementation of HVACR standards should be accorded top priority from the conceptual stage to the operation \& maintenance period of a structure. Indoor environment of a building should be minimally affected by outdoor pollution. Inside living or working conditions should be designed in a manner that the above mentioned parameters are not conflicting with one another rather all of them contribute their respective share towards well being of the building. Arrangements should be made to continuously monitor the said parameters so that emergence of negative impacts, if any, may be avoided. Also management of the building should be able to take mitigation measures for controlling turbulent situations. In nutshell the physical, biological and socio-economic environments should always be congenial for the users. This is only possible if relevant HVACR standards are implemented throughout life.
Keywords: Biological environment, Eco-green building, HVACR standards, Indoor pollution, Outdoor pollution, Physical environment, Socio-economic environment, Sustainable development
Citedy By: 
Nanotechnology for sustainable energy.
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Author: Ali, M. A. A.
Journal: Science Vision,,Vol.16 (0), 2012--Pages 1--12
Abstract: Nanotechnology and its applications have captured a worldwide market. Nanomaterials that have been developed using this technology can be ncorporated into the devices so that renewable energy can be inverted or generated more efficiently. Nanomaterials have the potential to change the way we generate, deliver and use energy. Hydrogen cells are used in auto industry as a viable power source. Compressed hydrogen tanks are used to supply Hydrogen, and Oxygen is used from the air directly. There is no pollution caused by hydrogen fuel cell autos since the only emission is water. Organic dyes (dye sensitizers), which are sensitive to light, can absorb a broader range of the sun \& rsquo;s spectrum. A dye-sensitized solar cell has three primary parts. On top is a transparent anode made of fluoride-doped tin dioxide (SnO2:F) deposited on the back typically of a glass plate. On the back of this conductive plate is a thin layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2), which forms into a highly nanoporous structure with an extremely large surface-area. After soaking the film in the dye solution, a thin layer of the dye is left covalently bonded to the surface of the TiO2 . Computational material science and nanoscience can play many critical roles in renewable energy research. These include: finding the right materials for hydrogen storage; finding the most reliable and efficient catalyst for water dissociation in hydrogen production; finding a cheap, environmentally benign, and stable material for efficient solar cell applications; and understanding the photo-electron process in a nanosystem, and hence helping design efficient nanostructure solar cells.
Keywords: Computational nanosciences, Dye solar cell, Hydrogen cell, Nanotechnology, Renewable energy, Sustainable energy
Citedy By: 
A review on biomass-coal co-combustion: Current state of knowledge
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Author: Munir, S.
Journal: Proceedings of Pakistan Academy of Sciences,,Vol.47 (4), 2011--Pages 265--287
Abstract: The concept of "Energy from biomass" gained attention in the last decade in the context of clean electricity generation. It is still a developing field because of the unavailability of standard engineering practices in this area. The variations in the chemical composition and physical properties of biomasses have made this task lengthier. There are several parametric studies available in the literature on the co-firing of biomass with coal. The information on agricultural residue co-firing in conjunction with air and fuel staging is scarce. The idea of energy crops for co-combustion to get green energy needs review due to present food shortage crises in the world. Therefore, there is utmost need to explore the energy potential and environmental benefits associated with the agricultural wastes-coal co-firing. The present paper presents a review of the previous work and suggests a strategy for Pakistan to solve energy crises by utilizing its indigenous resources of coal and agricultural waste.
Keywords: Bagasse, Biomass, Climate change, Energy, Renewable
Citedy By: 
Biogas development in rural areas of Pakistan: A sustainable option for domestic energy
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Author: Khurshid, M.
Journal: Science Vision,,Vol.15 (2), 2011--Pages 57--62
Abstract: All those developmental activities that meet the needs of the present generation without jeopardizing those of the future are sustainable in terms of social, economic and environmental parameters. Energy, a major agent of development, is mostly produced from fossil fuels that are not only finite and costly to extract but also contribute to polluting the environment. Renewable energy sources, on the other hand, offer environment-friendly and economically viable options for energy generation in the rural areas. Biogas offers an opportunity for decentralized energy-generation in rural areas to all those potential households possessing livestock. Rural communities traditionally use fuel-wood and cow-dung cakes as a source of energy in Pakistan. It has been reported that the annual per capita fuel-wood requirement is 0.52 m3 that implies a consumption of 5.20 m3 of fuel-wood for a family of 10 per year Thus, a single family may cut three to four fully grown trees in a year just to meet its domestic energy needs. Over the years, this has been leading to degradation of natural forests, besides depriving the agricultural fields from decomposed organic manure. Possessing a huge potential in the form of 10 million livestock for biogas development, Pakistan can produce 150 million m3 of biogas per day, i.e. 54,000 million m3 per annum. This huge untapped potential can prove to be a major source of income generation in rural areas through energy production, organic farming and trading carbon credits that could be earned under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol, besides reducing emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It would be advisable that the relevant policy-making organizations may work for devising a policy that encourages biogas development and promotion. One of the best ways to this end is to completely stop extension of natural gas pipelines to the rural areas in future and divert the cost of establishing such pipelines/networks to the development and promotion of biogas technology in rural areas of Pakistan.
Keywords: Biogas development, CDM,Clean Development Mechanism, Domestic energy, Fossil fuels, Green houses gases, Rural areas
Citedy By: 
How to make renewable energy economical for the people of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: Khan, M. I.
Journal: Science Vision,,Vol.15 (2), 2011--Pages 13--20
Abstract: Energy is the key to economic success of any country. Pakistan is heavily dependent on imported fossil-fuels for generating electricity from thermal power plants and for mobility of its transportation system. On the other hand, Pakistan is blessed with plenty of renewable energy resources, such as hydro, solar, wind and biomass. The country has one of the best systems of canal-irrigation, electricity transmission-grid and natural-gas distribution in the world. In spite of this, Pakistan is facing acute power-shortage. More than 58,000 villages are to-date without electricity. The gap between demand and supply in electricity is increasing by 10 \% every year and this gap in the demand and supply of natural gas is around 0.8Bcfd$\backslash$ , which will widen in the years to come. Using a combination of renewable energy sources within the existing infrastructure can be the best solution for eliminating this power short-fall in the country. Even in remote rural areas, where transmission-lines are not viable, decentralized power-generation using renewable energy technologies could prove to be the best sustainable solution. In this article, the use of Renewable Energy (RE) as a clean and sustainable source that provides a viable economic solution to the developing countries like Pakistan is highlighted.
Keywords: Fossil fuel, Remote rural areas,Renewable energy
Citedy By: 
Energy conservation strategies, with special reference to Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: Kazi, A. Q.
Journal: Science Vision,Vol.15 (2), 2011--Pages 1--8
Abstract: As a result of limited fossil-fuel resources, slow adoption and propagation of renewable energy technologies, spiraling prices of petroleum products and worsening environmental conditions, due to climate change, every country is faced with the need to define new directions with respect to energy consumption, conservation, and energy-options. These aspects are discussed in some detail in this article, which proposes that a multi-pronged strategy, encompassing (i) a change in overall life style, (ii) energy-efficient construction, distribution and utilization, (iii) effective environment-management and energy-discipline, be adopted to control and conserve energy in the increasing energy-demand scenario.
Keywords: Climate change, Energy conservation, Fossil fuel, Renewable energy
Citedy By: 
Efficient solar energy conversion in a low cost flat-plate solar cooker fabricated for use in rural areas of the South Asian countries
[PDF] 
Author: Jamil, Y., Raza, M. and Muhammad, N.
Journal: Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology,,Vol.27 (2), 2011--Pages 193--198
Abstract: Solar flat plate cooker has been designed and fabricated for use in the rural areas of the South Asian countries. Indigenous low cost materials have been utilized for the fabrication of the cooker. The manufacturing cost of the cooker is less than US \$ 150. The aim of this work is td utilize direct solar energy for cooking purpose. A flat plate absorber made of Copper is used to absorb the heat energy from the sun. The maximum recorded plate temperature of the cooker was 110oC at an ambient temperature of 37oC. At this temperature sufficient steam is produced which is channeled to the cooking region though copper pipes. The cooker is found to be effective for cooking traditional food items like pulses, vegetables, meat, eggs, etc. It may be used as an alternative of fossil fuels in the rural areas of the South Asian countries, particularly by the rural women.
Keywords: Cooking with Solar Energy, Energy Conversion, Flat-Plate Cooker, Solar Cooker, Solar Radiation
Citedy By: 
Hydrogen fuel-cells: the future of clean energy technology
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Author: Daud, W. R. W.
Journal: Science Vision,,Vol.15 (2), 2011--Pages 41--48
Abstract: Fuel-cell technology, using hydrogen energy, is an advanced green energy technology for the future that is green, sustainable, clean and environment- friendly. Emission of Green-house gases from human activities has been proven beyond doubt as the main cause of global warming and climate-change. The finite world energy-supply, which consists nearly of 90 \% fossil fuel, will be depleted in a short period of time precipitating an energy-crisis because of a widening gap between fossil-fuel production and demand. Many countries responded to the anticipated energy crisis by diversifying their fuel-resources to include renewable and alternative energy, and developing green-energy technology for the future. Despite political announcements on renewable energy, fossil-fuels will continue to dominate energy resources for some time in future, and carbon emission will increase; but global nuclear energy expansion is uncertain because of international tensions and general public fears of another Chernobyl disaster or a nuclear attack by terrorists. Bio fuels too are plagued by the conflict between crops for fuel and crops for food, and there is a shift of interest towards crop-biomass waste. Further expansion of hydrogen energy is constrained by costs and by safety of hydrogen transport and storage. Fuel cell R \& D has shifted from older Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) and Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC), whose entry into the market was stalled by intractable operational and durability problems, to the more promising Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) and Solid Oxid Fuel Cell (SOFC). A new type of fuel cell, the microbial fuel-cell (MFC), is also gaining attention because it provides a sustainable way of simultaneously reducing BOD \& COD of waste-water and providing power: combined wastewater treatment and power (CWTP).The main thrust in R \& D of PEMFC is cost-reduction of membrane and electro catalyst, by substitution with cheaper but more efficient organic/inorganic nanocomposite membranes and nano-inorganic electro catalyst, as well as lower electro catalyst loading, and by cost-reduction of bipolar plate by material reformulation with nanomaterials for injection or compression molding. In addition, cost-reduction can also be achieved by reduction of system complexity, using non-hydrated or self-hydrated membranes that eliminate water management sub-system and CO tolerant anodes that eliminate COremoval of reform ate hydrogen feed. PEMFC system efficiency can be further enhanced by better designing of flow field in bipolar plates, fuel and air manifold in the stack as well as through process-optimization using process system engineering tools. The main thrust of R \& D in SOFC is reduction of its operational temperature by replacement with low-temperature electrolytes, anodes and cathodes. Future DMFC R \& D focuses on methanol crossover reduction, better water-management and lower manufacturing costs. Future R \& D on MFC focuses on understanding the electron-transfer mechanism and redox reactions in cells and developing more efficient nanostructured electrodes and cell immobilization. The main thrusts of R \& D in production of hydrogen from liquid fuels are in the development of low-temperature auto-thermal steam reforming catalysts, purification of reformate hydrogen through pressure-swing adsorption and membrane processes, as well as membrane reactors, and higher hydrogen-storage capacity in carbon nanotubes and other nanostructures. The main focus of R \& D for sustainable hydrogen production is using photolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen in solar photovoltaic-electrolyzer system, direct solar photoelectrochemical reactors and solar photo-biological fermentors.
Keywords: Fuel cell, Green energy, Hydrogen economy, Hydrogen fuel cell, Nano materials, Nanostructures, Solar cell
Citedy By: 
The Bangladesh micro-generation energy model: Lessons for developing countries
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Author: Asif, M.
Journal: Science Vision,,Vol.15 (2), 2011--Pages 41--48
Abstract: Lack of access to sufficient and affordable energy is one of the major challenges for a large population in the developing countries. Renewable energy is an appropriate option to meet the energy requirements of people in these regions. In this respect, many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America hate initiated micro-generation renewable energy programmes. In Bangladesh, the renewable energy programmes based on micro-credit have experienced an unprecedented success. The Bangladesh model was pioneered by Grameen Shakti - the largest and most successful organization in the country - that is now installing over 20, 000 solar- home systems per month. Other developing countries can learn a lot from the best practices of the Bangladesh micro-generation model. By highlighting the prominent features of the Grameen Shakti programme, this article reflects upon the important lessons that can be learnt from the Bangladesh model, for launching similar programmes in other developing countries.
Keywords:  Grameen Shakti, Micro-generation, Renewable energy, Solar home systems
Citedy By: 
Environmental issues and energy conservation in buildings in Pakistan: Role of architectural intervention
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Author: Arif, S., Khan, A. and Alamgir, K
Journal: Nucleus,Vol.48 (2), 2011--Pages 137--142
Abstract: Energy shortage and environmental catastrophe is the severe problem globally and particularly important for the developing countries like Pakistan. There is a serious need to solve the problem for a sustainable building environment as the building sector has become a major consumer of energy. An attempt has been made for the building professionals and building users for adherence into their design and construction the energy conservation measures to reduce environmental problems more easily after the thorough review of the famous Authors \& rsquo; research work and findings in this field. The ultimate aim is the establishment of awareness for the building professionals for delivering sustainable buildings in Pakistan. Through the implementation of design measures to mitigate the urban heat island, the general public can decrease their demand for energy and effectively cool the urban landscape. In addition to the economic benefits, energy conservation leads to reductions in CO2 emissions
Keywords: Buildings, Electricity, Energy conservation, Environment, Sustainability
Citedy By: 
A study on economic feasibility of biogas plant for a small town
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Author: Ansari, S. H., Khan, M. S., Haider, M. S. and Ahmad, A.
Journal: Science International,,Vol.23 (4), 2011--Pages 325--326
Abstract: Energy crisis is one of the major problems of our country now a day. We should emphasis on new energy resources to fulfill our demand. In renewable energy resources, biogas is one of them. Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matters. In anaerobic digestion, biodegradable materials are decomposed into biogas by bacteria in the absence of air. Kitchen waste contain large amount of these biodegradable materials. The report of economic feasibility for biogas plant using kitchen waste of housing colony consisting of 200 houses for power generation and cooking purposes is carried out.
Keywords: Anaeriobic digestion, Biogas, Kitchen waste
Citedy By: 
Review of sustainable energy development
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Author: Afgan, N. H.
Journal: Science Vision,,Vol.15 (2), 2011--Pages 21--40
Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the sustainable energy development and aims to emphasize the important aspects of the relevant activity. A short introduction to the present energy outlook with a survey of available data is presented. Also, special attention has been given to the definition of sustainability and its generic meaning. In this respect, particular attention is given to the discussion on different aspects of sustainability in the present world scenario. In order to present an engineering approach to sustainable development, a review has been made of sustainability criteria as they are of importance to future energy-related products. The main emphasis of this paper is on reviewing the potential development in energy-engineering that may lead to sustainable energy development. Seven major areas having relevance to sustainable energy development and with specific problems are listed. These are: energy resources development; efficiency assessment; clean air technologies; information technologies; new and renewable energy resources; environment capacity; and mitigation of nuclear power threat to the environment. A sound education system is an important milestone for any nation to achieve economic development. In this respect, special focus was needed to consolidate the concepts of sustainable development education system. Distance-learning education system is envisaged as the potential option for dissemination of knowledge and information on new energy technologies.
Keywords: Distance-learning education, Energy-engineering, Nuclear power threat, Renewable energy, Sustainable energy development
Citedy By: 
Exploring the potential of solar and wind energy sources for irrigation: An overview for Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: Abdul, Wahab, Yasin, M. and Ahmed, M. M.
Journal: Science Vision,,Vol.15 (2), 2011--Pages 63--70
Abstract: Energy is one of the major concerns for pumping of water through tube wells, as it incurs high electricity tariffs and rising prices of diesel fuels. Cost effectiveness (Capital and O \& M) is essential for adopting solar and wind powered micro-irrigation for smallholdings. Solar and wind-energy systems could provide economical ways to produce electricity for domestic and farm use, as well as pumping water for agriculture. This paper presents an overview of the potential of solar and wind energy-resources, and explores means to better understand and adopt pumping technologies with renewable energy sources, in an agrarian country like Pakistan. Some details of system design and comparison of solar and wind-powered systems are given.
Keywords: Agriculture, Energy, Pakistan, Solar, Tube well, Wind
Citedy By: 
Face Challenges! To Secure Nation`s Energy Future (Development of Unconventional Reservoir).
[PDF] 
Author: Zaghum Ur, Rehman and Tomic, J.
Journal: Proceedings SPE-PAPG Annual Technical Conference,,Vol.0 (0), 2010--Pages 283--288
Abstract: With depletion of conventional gas reservoirs around the world, paradigm has widely shifted for exploring unconventional gas. Though, unconventional gas production has been going on for quit some time in North America but is relatively new for rest of the world. In the opinion of geoscientists huge volumes of unconventional gas are still untapped. Finding \& development of these reserves would play vital role in the stability of E \& P business as well as economy of major nations. Various regions deal with their own classification of unconventional/tight reservoirs, however, generally accepted definition of tight reservoirs suggests, that sands having permeability of less than 0.1mD fall within tight sand. As Middle Indus Basin (MIB) is core operating area of OMV (Pakistan). Declining production from conventional gas pools demanded serious efforts for exploring new reserves. Pakistan a nation hungry in energy has a significant gas market. These factors triggered the initiation of comprehensive efforts to search for the unconventional gas. Therefore, OMV is putting substantial resources for understanding \& development of unconventional reservoirs in MIB. Full fledged study through consultant is currently underway for exploitation of unconventional gas reservoirs. Consultant will perform detailed study on drilling of tight reservoirs, petrophysical evaluation, geological depositional models, reservoir \& production engineering aspects of unconventional reservoirs. Based on the outcome of the study few, pilot wells will be drilled for testing \& proving the proposed technology.
Keywords: Classification, Drilling, Energy, Gas production, Gas reservoir,
Citedy By: 

[PDF] 
Author: 
Journal: ,Vol. (), --Pages 
Abstract: 
Keywords: Middle indus basin, Pakistan, Permeability, Production, Reservoirs, Tight reserves, Unconventional gas, Unconventional reservoir, Well
Citedy By: 
Energy efficient security in MANETs: A comparison of cryptographic and artificial immune systems.
[PDF] 
Author: Mazhar, N.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences,,Vol.7 (0), 2011--Pages 69--90
Abstract: MANET is characterized by a set of mobile nodes in an inherently insecure environment having limited battery capacities. Provisioning of energy efficient security in MANETs is, therefore, an open problem for which a number of solutions have been proposed. In this paper, the Author present an overview and comparison of the MANET security at routing layer by using the cryptographic and Artificial Immune System (AIS) approaches. The BeeAdHoc protocol, which is a Bio-inspired MANET routing protocol based on the foraging principles of honey bee colony, is taken as case study. the Author carry out an analysis of the three security frameworks that the Author have proposed earlier for securing BeeAdHoc protocol; one based on asymmetric key encryption, i.e BeeSee and the other two using the AIS approach, i.e BeeAIS based on self non-self discrimination from adaptive immune system and BeeAIS D-C based on Dendritic Cell (DC) behavior from innate immune system. the Author extensively evaluate the performance of the three protocols through network simulations in ns-2 and compare with BeeAdHoc, the base protocol, as well as with state of the art MANET routing protocols DSR and AODV. The results clearly indicate that AIS based systems provide security at much lower cost to energy as compared with the cryptographic systems. Moreover, the use of dendritic cells and danger signals instead of the classical self non-self discrimination allows to detect the non-self antigens with greater accuracy. Based on the results of this investigation, the Author also propose a composite AIS model for BeeAdHoc security by combining the concepts from both the adaptive and the innate immune systems by modeling the attributes and behavior of the B-cells and DCs
Keywords: Artificial immune systems, Cryptography, Danger theory, MANET security
Citedy By: 
Gas reservoir drive mechanism a comparative study of various diagnostic plots.
[PDF] 
Author: Majeed, A., Aftab, F., Ahmed, M. N. and Akhtar, M. N.
Journal: Proceedings SPE-PAPG Annual Technical Conference,Vol.0 (0), 2010--Pages 199--208
Abstract: Production practices applied to maximize gas recovery from water drive gas reservoirs differ from those applied to volumetric ones. It necessitates appraising of reservoir drive mechanism at the earliest for maximum gas recovery. Normally P/Z, a diagnostic plot, is used to assess the drive type of a gas reservoir and estimate the Gas Initially in Place (GIIP). However, P/Z plot fails to recognize water encroachment during initial reservoir life for some reservoir-aquifer systems. There are some other diagnostic plots as well, such as energy plot, which are used to estimate GIIP and detect presence of aquifer attached with gas reservoirs. All these plots utilize correlations based on cumulative gas withdrawal and PVT properties evaluated at corresponding reservoir pressure. Pressure used to evaluate PVT properties is assumed to be acquired under complete stabilized conditions and representing reservoir depletion stage. However, in case of low permeability reservoirs it is not practical to shut-in wells long enough to achieve pressure stabilization. This paper presents comparative evaluation of these diagnostic plots for the above mentioned aspects of their application. 3-D homogenous gas reservoir simulation models are constructed to evaluate and identify the plot that detects presence of aquifer more efficiently with least gas withdrawal. Behavior of these plots for shut in times of varying duration is evaluated as well. Heterogeneous reservoir models are used to asses the effect of reservoir depositional heterogeneity, on the capability of these plots to diagnose drive mechanism and estimate GIIP.
Keywords: Diagnostic plots, Drive mechanism, Energy, Gas reservoir, Permeability, Reservoirs, Simulation, Well
Citedy By: 
Pakistan's potential in renewable energy resources.
[PDF] 
Author: Khokhar, S.
Journal: Environ Monitor,,Vol.10 (42861), 2011--Pages 20--35
Abstract: Electrical power through renewable source of energy has been fast projected as an attractive option for Pakistan. Only 55 \% of the Pakistan's population has access to electricity and per capita supply is about 520 kWh. At present, the people are facing severe load shedding/blackout problems due to shortage of about 3 GW power supply. Gas and oil have 65 \% share in conventional electricity generation. Indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy. Though there is huge coal potential in the country but has not been utilized due to various reasons. This shows that Pakistan must develop renewables to manage the energy crises. This paper analyses the prospects of renewables for managing the energy crises in the country. The study concludes that there is substantial potential of renewables in the country for managing the present energy crises as well as meeting the future energy needs. The need of electrification of entire Pakistan has become essential for our economic revival. Pakistan still accounts for only 0.5 per cent of the world's total energy consumption although energy consumption in our country has nearly tripled during the last 20 years or so.
Keywords: Energy, Pakistan, Renewable energy
Citedy By: 
Energy crisis in Pakistan: Analysis & solutions.
[PDF] 
Author: Khan, M. S., Qayyum, M. A. and Saqib, H. E.
Journal: New Horizons: Journal of the Institution of Electrical & Electronics Engineers Pakistan,,Vol.64 (2), 2010--Pages 45--47
Abstract: The year is 2009 and Pakistan has fallen into the dark ages. This might be surprising point for someone unaware of the crisis facing by the country, but for all those staying in Pakistan can't see the light at the end of the tunnel because basically the Authors don't have the power to switch it on. As engineering students the Authors goal is to give ideas so that power sector can start rolling again.
Keywords: Crisis, Dark ages, Engineering students, Power sector
Citedy By: 
Meeting the Future Challenges of Energy Resources through Academia-Industry Collaboration.
[PDF] 
Author: Khan, A. M. and Rafeeqi, S. F. A.
Journal: Proceedings SPE-PAPG Annual Technical Conference,,Vol.0 (0), 2010--Pages 295--302
Abstract: As the present century witnesses inter-disciplinary approach, mainly due to innovative technological development, the ever growing demand of energy requires more careful handling of energy and related human resources. Pakistan with rapid depleting oil \& gas reserves and an increased demand for energy, needs efficient management of available resources as well as efforts on war footing for new discoveries. The situation therefore demands more dedicated role of academia and the industry to face the future challenges. The academia must produce professionals that meet the requirement of the industry from local, regional and global perspective. The industry on the other hand needs to strengthen the efforts of the academia not only through financial support but also more effectively through technical support. A well qualified, practically trained human resource, oriented towards technological innovations, can revolutionize the present situation. NED University while assessing and analyzing the future challenges and responsibilities has been able to successfully design and implement an Academia- Industry collaborative model, for its newly established undergraduate Petroleum Engineering Programme. The model defines a strong support of industry through an Advisory Board for strengthening the programme and facilities to a level at par with the international standard. An effort has been made to produce a product that can contribute to the country and the global demand of the industry. The first batch of 25 students is now rendering efficient service to the industry. It is now up to the each perspective employer to judge the quality of students being produced. A win-win situation for both is anticipated.
Keywords: Academia-industry collaboration, Energy, Energy resources, Well
Citedy By: 
Physical model studies of energy dissipation systems to rehabilitate Jinnah barrage.
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Author: Chaudhyr, Z. A.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences,Vol.5 (0), 2010--Pages 32--38
Abstract: A subsidiary weir was proposed by feasibility consultants to rehabilitate and modernize jinnah Barrage. This weir is to be constructed across the river, at a distance of about 800 ft, downstream of the barrage. Subsidiary weir location and crest level was finally fixed on the basis of a detailed physical model study. This model study was carried by Irrigation Research institute (IRI) at their Lahore Laboratory under the technical guidance of “feasibility consultants”. The “Detailed Design Consultants” while finalizing rehabilitation structure (either subsidiary weir or its alternative) requested IRI for another model study, which was carried out at Nandipur Research Station. It seems that the two model studies were under taken for the same project, having almost similar objectives. This paper critically reviews the judiciousness of two model studies carried out for the same project. Furthermore, the experimental results of various rehabilitation alternatives are also discussed in terms of their reliability and effectiveness.
Keywords: Jinnah barrage, Physical model study, Rehabilitation, Subsidiary weir, Two-step stilling basin, modernization
Citedy By: 
Energy dissipation problems downstream of Jinnah barrage.
[PDF] 
Author: Chaudhry, Z. A.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, ,Vol.3 (0), 2010--Pages 19--25
Abstract: Jinnah barrage is one of these barrages recommended by the Evaluation Consultants for rehabilitation and modernization works. Feasibility study for “Rehabilitation and Modernization of the Jinnah Barrage” noted that the hydraulic jump do not form over the glacis rather sweeps on the floor. The un-dissipated energy is causing damage to the impact blocks, the adjacent concrete floor and downstream loose stone apron. Feasibility consultants suggested curative measures, such as the construction of subsidiary weir at a distance of about 800ft downstream of the barrage and river training works upstream of the barrage. The finalization of rehabilitation works (either subsidiary weir or its alternative) is in progress and subsequently the detail design of the selected alternative will be carried out. The main focus in this study is to review previous studies/investigations, energy dissipation mechanism, river survey, sounding and probing data to establish the extent of damages and precisely the root cause for the damages.
Keywords: Jinnah barrage, Rehabilitation, Subsidiary weir, modernization
Citedy By: 
Development of a solar fish dryer.
[PDF] 
Author: Boyo, A. and Boyo, H.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, ,Vol.52 (4), 2010--Pages 228--230
Abstract: The solar fish dyer developed for particular conditions of Bishop Village, Lagos, Nigeria absorbs sunlight with a flat plate collector for its air heater. Mirrors are appended to one of the collector sides to enhance collection of solar radiations. The dryer is a passive type, tailored to solve the energy needs of the people of the area. On days of high irradiance, temperature within the solar fish dryer can be as high as 800C with relative humidity around 10 \% .
Keywords: Fish drying, Flat plate collector, Renewable energy, Solar fish dryer
Citedy By: 
Distribution of total and diffuse solar radiation at Lahore, Pakistan.
[PDF] 
Author: Ahmed, M. A., Ahmed, F. and Akhtar, W.
Journal: Journal of Scientific Research, ,Vol.40 (1), 2010--Pages 37--43
Abstract: In this research work the solar radiation for Lahore (Latitude 31.56) has been studied for efficient utilization of solar energy employing sunshine hour data. The results obtained exhibit the variation of direct and diffuse radiation at Lahore. The diffuse radiation is maximum in the month of July and minimum during the month of April, May and June. The K1 Value indicates the clear sky during the month of January, February, April, May and September to December. Where as during the month of June to August the sky is mostly cloudy which is the monsoon months is. From the estimated results it is found that with the exception of monsoon months solar energy can be utilized very efficiently through out the year.
Keywords: Diffuse radiation, Sky condition, Solar radiation
Citedy By: 
Use of solar energy for disinfection of polluted water.
[PDF] 
Author: Jamil, Y., Ahmad, M. R., Ali, K., Habeeb, A. and Hassan, M.
Journal: Soil & Environment,,Vol.28 (1), 2009--Pages 13--16
Abstract: Polluted water is causing serious health problems especially in the rural areas of Pakistan. People have limited access to safe water supply and many diseases like diarrhea and gastrointestinal diseases are transmitted by consumption of polluted water. We have investigated the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize water. Low cost indigenously available materials have been utilized to design and fabricate a solar box type pasteurizer having a capacity of three liters. The performance study of the pasteurizer was performed during the month of May 2008. The designed pasteurizer maintained water temperature in the range of 60 oC to 70 oC continuously for more than an hour which is enough for deactivation of coliform bacteria. The maximum water temperature on a clear sunny day was found to be 67 oC, corresponding to an ambient temperature of 40 oC. With the pasteurizer facing south, a very little repositioning was required. The low cost and operational simplicity of the pasteurizer make it affordable and usable. It is more useful in rural areas where other sources of energy like electricity and gas are not easily available.
Keywords: solar Energy, polluted water, Environmental Health
Citedy By: 
Challenges and opportunities for wind power for future energy supplies in Pakistan.
[PDF] 
Author: Farooque, M., Javed, M. T., Khan, N. A. and Waheed, K.
Journal: Nucleus,,Vol.46 (3), 2009--Pages 253--262
Abstract: Due to rapid modernization the energy resources are depleting rapidly throughout the world while the energy demand is rising steadily. The crude oil price has soared upto \$ 140.0 per barrel that has triggered the use of renewable energy resources. Pakistan particular is the most energy deficient country where a shortfall of as high as 4500 MW is recorded in the recent year. The Renewable Energy Technologies (RET's) are important and had gained the prime importance these days with specific focus on solar and wind power. This paper highlights the challenges and opportunities for wind power in Pakistan. The wind potential in different areas has been explored, including a vital area of about 9700 km2 in Sindh. Wind power is a new energy resource in Pakistan's history, uptil now main resources are Fossil Fuel contributing 65 \% , hydel 33 % and nuclear only 2 \% respectively. Wind is an environment friendly resource and its appreciable contribution will be achieved in future. Paper analyses the present energy scenario through wind power in Pakistan and leads to future progress in order to secure energy security in the country.
Keywords: wind power, future energy supplies, renewable energy resources ,Pakistan
Citedy By: 
Solar drying system for the agro-products dehydration.
[PDF] 
Author: Castaeda-Miranda, A., Castaeda-Miranda, R. and Jimenez, J. M.
Journal: Journal of Agriculture and Social Sciences,,Vol.4 (4), 2009--Pages 135--140
Abstract: The proposed solar thermodynamic drying system reduces the traditional dehydration process of Roselle used in the western region of Mexico, from approximately four days to four hours. In addition to the 95 \% reduction in process time, this system also maintains the Roselle's nutritional content, especially that of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). The proposed drying system is based on current operating conditions in Colima, Mexico as well as on three quantifiable control variables of Roselle: product weight, product humidity and product drying temperature. The product control variables were quantified and defined during the project as: Initial weight (1.0 kg of fresh product), final weight (0.152 kg of dry solid), initial humidity (84.8 \% ), final humidity (14.3 \% ) and dry temperature (48 \textordmasculine C to 68 \textordmasculine C). Based on these control variables, the proposed system operates a continuously moving band at a constant speed. As the Roselle moves along the band through the system's drying chamber, it is dehydrated by heated air. Initially, the system uses solar energy to heat fluid (i.e., water or thermal oil). The heat generated is transferred from fluid to surrounding air via a forced convection process. By greatly diminishing drying time and controlling humidity, the system affords considerable control over optimal end-product quality (i.e., protection from pollutants \& destructive microbial activity). The proposed system's settings can be easily adjusted to accommodate other products as well, making it even more commercially viable for agro-industrial producers. The drying process eliminates the water or moisture content of the calyxes yet maintains the nutritional properties specifically, the ascorbic acid content. A low cost and durability of the system is considered in the design.
Keywords: Solar drying, agro-products, dehydration,
Citedy By: 
Estimation of global and diffuse solar radiation for Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan.
[PDF] 
Author: Ahmed, M. A., Ahmad, F. and Akhtar, M. W.
Journal: Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences,,Vol.5 (2), 2009--Pages 73--77
Abstract: Solar radiation studies have been carried out to asses the feasibility of solar Energy utilization at Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan (Latitude 25o 35´ N). The result obtained shows they variation of Direct and Diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months. The contribution of diffuse solar radiation is high during the monsoon months (July and August) whereas sky condition are clear during winter months. From the estimated values it is found that with the exception of monsoon month, solar energy can be utilized very efficiently throughout the year.
Keywords: solar radiation, solar energy, Hyderabad, Pakistan
Citedy By: 
Application of various means for energy conservation.
[PDF] 
Author: Qureshi, S. A., Kamran, M. and Mahmood, F.
Journal: New Horizons: Journal of the Institution of Electrical & Electronics Engineers Pakistan,,Vol.59 (0), 2009--Pages 22-28
Abstract: This paper includes the application of different technologies to reduce the cost of electricity by TOD Tariff of WAPDA and MDI controllers. The power factor improvement by supply of KVAR not only improves the power quality but also reduce the per unit cost of electric.
Keywords: Energy conservation.
Citedy By: 
Developing cost effective and environmental friendly oil transmission network.
[PDF] 
Author: Qureshi, M. A., Ahmad, M. and Aziz, E. A.
Journal: Proceedings SPE-PAPG Annual Technical Conference,,Vol.0 (0), 2008--Pages 191--194
Abstract: Country's gross crude oil production is nearing 70,000 barrel per day which includes OGDCL's current share around 45,000 barrels per day. This volume on daily basis is mostly being transported by roads through oil tankers from different fields to the refineries. On the other hand, about 850 Kilometers long pipelines from Karachi to Multan, 365 Kilometers white line in central region from Mehmud Kot to Sheikhupura and in up-country more than 100 Kilometers plus oil pipelines from Khaur to Morgah – Rawalpinid are also being used for shifting imported and local crude oil to the refineries. The total oil transportation expenses of oil producers are over Rupees one billion or US \$ 16 Million during 2005-06. Considerable number of tankers are required for shifting of crude oil to the refineries. The conditions of the roads, such as Karachi to Hyderabad, have worsened due to this heavy load and the frequency of transportation. Traffic congestion, fatal road accidents, environmental pollution and shortage of parking space in industrial areas are the other burning issues related to oil transportation. We would like to take this opportunity to present some thought provoking alternate proposal regarding launching and Oil Transport Company for crude oil transportation through pipelines to the different refineries. Being a capital intensive project, the investment both in local and foreign currency can be syndicated through a commercial consortium of major E \& P and refining companies. Oil Companies and refining sector would find this opportunity attractive both from the investment and operational perspectives. In the initial stage it will be advantageous to start a venture with some equity allocation and focus on developing limited pipelines in the southern region of the county. The additional benefits would be savings in foreign exchange by reduced diesel import bill for tankers, lower number of road accidents, clean environment, lower cost and improvement in infrastructure that will make energy sector more conducive to foreign investors.
Keywords: environmental friendly, oil transmission
Citedy By: 
Future of Solar Energy in Pakistan.
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Author: Orfi, S. D., Baig, A. and Sarwar, A.
Journal: Engineering horizons,Vol.21 (236), 2008--Pages 21--23
Abstract: There is plenty of sun shine in most of the areas in Pakistan with 270-300 shining days a year and 7-8 shining hours a day. There is also plenty of sand with average to good silicon contents (20-25 \% ) easily available in many areas of the country. The technical base and government subsidy required for the Solar Energy to take off are missing. Essential inputs required for a meaningful programme on Solar Energy (20MV/year) are described. Once, the solar energy harnessing programme based on local silicon whether in private sector or government sector touches 100 MV/year, subsidies provided by government can be slowly withdrawn as was done by Japan.
Keywords: Solar Energy, Pakistan,
Citedy By: 
Performance optimization of industrial municipal solid waste combustors – A need of the day to convert waste to wealth.
[PDF] 
Author: Mubin, S., Khan, A. H. and Hussain, A.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Science,Vol.60 (42737), 2008--Pages 19--25
Abstract: The average amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Malaysia is 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day and has increased to 1.7 kg/person/day in major cities. Due to rapid development and lack of space for new landfills, big cities in Malaysia are now switching to incineration. However, a major public concern over this technology also is the perception of the emission of pollutants of any form. Design requirements of high-performance incinerators are sometimes summarized as the achievements of 3Ts (time, temperature and turbulence). An adequate retention time in hot environment is crucial to destroy the products of incomplete combustion and organic pollutants. Also turbulent mixing enhances uniform distributions of temperature and oxygen availability. CFD modeling is now in the development phase of becoming a useful tool for 3D modeling of the complex geometry and flow conditions in incinerators. However, CFD flow simulations can enable detailed parametric variations of design variables. CFD modeling of an industrial scale MSW incinerator was done using software FLUENT Ver. 6.1. The 3D modeling was based conversation equations for mass, momentum and energy. The differential equations were discertized by the Finite Volume Method and were solved by the SIMPLE algorithm. The k-turbulence model was employed. The meshing was done using Gambit 2.0. The cold flow simulations were performed initially to develop the flow and velocity field. Using FLIC and FLUENT, it was possible to simulate all the three main phases of combustion i.e., the drying zone, devolatilization zone and the char burnout zone. Numerical simulations of the flow field inside the primary and secondary combustion chambers provided the temperature profiles and the concentration data at the nodal points of computational grids. The maximum temperature in the primary combustors for MSW and Mix fuel combustion were around 1600 K and 1900 K respectively. Parametric study was also done to minimize the NOX emission. Nevertheless, the reactive flow modeling inside a MSW combustor has been done successfully using the FLIC and FLUENT programs. The results are useful in optimizing the design and operation of industrial waste combustors.
Keywords: industrial wates, muncipaql solid wastes, combustion, combustors
Citedy By: 
Benefits and constraints in the use of solar cooker.
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Author: Ilyas, S. Z.
Journal: Science International,Vol.20 (2), 2008--Pages 155--157
Abstract: Women in Pakistan have been overlooked during and after the planning and implementation of household energy projects for decades. The immediate impact of domestic household energy projects falls on the women first. Since women are the ones who deal mostly with energy at the domestic level. A sample of 100 women users of solar cookers was selected randomly. Majority of the respondents were in the age group of 30-55 years (80 \% ) and possessed solar cooker for more than on e year (74 \% ). Nutritional aspects (preserving nutritive value and food flavors), environmental aspect (keeping environment clean), and economical aspects (saving fuel and money) were perceived as most beneficial. Personal benefits (saving of time and convenience) ranked low under benefits. Situational constraints, like no cooking after evening and seasonal use of the cooker were perceived as sever constraints, followed by technical constraints (device not being durable) and personal constraints (shifting of device). The paper also highlights the modifications desired in the design of the solar cooker.
Keywords: Solar Cookers, women, Pakistan, modifications in design
Citedy By: 
Prospects of renewable-energy sources in Pakistan.
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Author: Zaigham, N. A. and Nayyer, Z. A.
Journal: Proceedings Renewable Energy Technologies and Sustainable Development,Vol.4 (0), 2007--Pages 65--86
Abstract: Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy- deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities, because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy- requirements from a variety of traditional and commercial sources. Share of various primary energy-sources in energy-supply mix remained during last few years as oil: 43.5 \% , gas: 41.5 \% , LPG: 0.3 \% , coal: 4.5 \% , hydro-electricity: 9.2 \% , and nuclear electricity: 1.1 \% . The electric-power generation included 71.9 \% thermal, 25.2 \% hydel and 2.9 \% nuclear. While there is no prospect for Pakistan to reach self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons, a good option is the exploitation and utilization o f the huge coal-reserves of Thar and the other renewable energy sources. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional as well as non-conventional, which have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. Thus, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge. Present observations, based oil reviewing the geological setup, geographical position, climatological cycles and the agricultural/industrial/ urbanization activities, reveal that there are bright prospects for the exploitation of various renewable-energy sources, which include mega \& macro/micro-hydel, biomass, biogas, wind, solar, co-generation, city and other solid wastes, utilization of low-head canal levels, sea wave \& tide and geothermal energies etc. Technologically, all these renewable-energy sources are viable and consequently suited to efforts for poverty alleviation and cleaner environment in Pakistan. The country can be benefited by harnessing these options o f energy-generation as substitute energy in areas where sources exist. As Pakistan is an agricultural country and major part of its population lives in the rural areas, the electricity generated by renewable sources will also improve rural life, thereby reducing the urban migration that is taxing the ability of cities to cope with their own environmental problems.
Keywords: renewable-energy sources, Pakistan,
Citedy By: 
Development of alternative/renewable sources of energy in Pakistan.
[PDF] 
Author: Sharif, M.
Journal: Proceedings Renewable Energy Technologies and Sustainable Development,Vol.4 (0), 2007--Pages 87--96
Abstract: The depleting Conventional Energy Resources and highly raised prices of fuel oil, coal, firewood and such other fossil fuels, have forced the mankind to think about the utilization of Alternative/Renewable Sources of Energy. Alternative/ Renewable Energy is very attractive, reliable and cost competitive energy. Sun is readily available to provide a clean, abundant and virtually infinite energy to meet the significant portion of mankind`s energy-needs. The possible use of renewable-energy sources is discussed in this paper, in order to fill the estimated gap between the available energy-sources and energy-needs of our country in the near future. Designing, Fabrication and Installation of different renewable-energy devices by PCSIR are also discussed in this paper. Different renewable-energy devices such as, solar water-heaters, solar cookers, solar dehydrators, solar water-desalination plants, solar heating and cooling of buildings, solar operated absorption-type chiller, solar furnace, solar architecture, developed by PCSIR are discussed in some detail so that the role of renewable-energy sources for their direct use (as heat and power) call be determined. Various technical aspects are discussed to reduce the unit cost with improved efficiency.
Keywords: renewable-energy sources, Pakistan, renewable-energy devices, solar water-heaters, solar cookers, solar dehydrators, solar water-desalination plants,
Citedy By: 
An overview of biofuels
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Author: Qureshi, I. H. and Ahmad, S.
Journal: Nucleus,Vol.44 (42737), 2007--Pages 45--54
Abstract: Biofuels for transport have received considerable attention due to rising oil prices and growing concern about greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels namely ethanol and esters of fatty acids have the potential to displace a substantial amount of petroleum fuel in the next few decades which will help to conserve fossil fuel resources. Life cycle analyses show that biofuels release lesser amount of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. Thus biofuels are seen as a pragmatic step towards reducing carbon dioxide emission from transport sector. Biofuels are compatible with petroleum and combustion engines can easily operate with 10 \% ethanol and 20 \% biodiesel blended fuel with no modification. However higher concentrations require “flex-fuel” engines which automatically adjust fuel injection depending upon fuel mix. Biofuels are derived from renewable biomass and can be produced from variety of feedstocks. The only limiting factors are the availability of cropland, growth of plants and the climate. Countries with warmer climate can get about five times more biofuel crops from each acre of land than cold climate countries. Genetically modified crops and fast growing trees are being developed to increase the production of energy crops.
Keywords: Biofuels, ethanol and esters
Citedy By: 
The recovery of natural gas from municipal solid waste of Faisalabad (Pakistan).
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Author: Nawaz, Z., Naveed, S. and Sagheer, K.
Journal: Science International,Vol.18 (1), 2007--Pages 21--26
Abstract: The natural gas (CH4) emission from landfills, otherwise emitted to the atmosphere can be remove and utilized, or significantly reduced in quantity by using cost-effective management methods. The gas can also be used as residential, commercial, or industrial fuel. Therefore, emission reduction strategies have the potential to become low cost, or even profitable. The growth rate of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) output in Faisalabad is 4.97 \% ; city and towns are developing quickly with high population rate and industrial development. MSW output was only 9732 Mt/day in 2001 and increased to 12065 Mt/day in 2004. Therefore the recovery of natural gas (CH4) from landfills is a profitable project in Faisalabad. For the progressive country like Pakistan, it is obligatory that all energy options must be pursued vigorously including methane (CH4) emission from landfills of MSW of Faisalabad.
Keywords: natural gas, from municipal solid waste, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Citedy By: 
Electrification of remote coastal areas through wind-energy.
[PDF] 
Author: Majid Ul, Hassan
Journal: Proceedings Renewable Energy Technologies and Sustainable Development,Vol.4 (0), 2007--Pages : 39--47
Abstract: It has been estimated that with the present utilization o f resources, the country will run out o f oil and gas reserves in one and a half decade. There is, thus, a strong need to take measures to tap other resources of energy, which are abundantly available in Pakistan. The exploitation of these resources for production of electricity on local basis, under participatory system of development, would supplement energy being provided by WAPDA, at a much lower cost due to the avoidance of laying high-tension cables, transformers, and meters, etc., and the manpower required to maintain the system. Balochistan is a large but thinly populated province of Pakistan. The situation of electrification in Balochistan is serious, as a vast majority of the population is without access to electricity. Many villages and districts of Balochistan do not have centralized electricity-grid and there is no hope, in the near future, to have one because the extension of grid to such remote and scattered settlements is neither practical not- economically viable. In Balochistan, out of a total number of 13,700 villages, WAPDA has merely electrified 3,154 villages due to the high cost involved in developing the necessary infrastructure. Not surprisingly, this situation is a source of discontentment among the people of the Province. Pakistan has a considerable potential of wind-energy in the coastal belt of Balochistan and Sindh, as well as in the desert areas of Punjab and Sindh, which if utilized effectively, can not only electrify all remote coastal villages, but the electricity so produced also can be fed to the national grid. This renewable source of energy has however, so far, not been utilized. Recently, fourteen small wind-turbines (300-500 watts) were procured and installed by PCRET under Sino-Pak S \& T Protocol. Being encouraged by performance of these small wind- turbines, a further 120 wind-turbines (100 of 500 watts and 20 wind-turbines of 5kW each) are being installed. The small wind-turbines of 500 watts have been imported from China and that of 5kW from Spain. Efforts are also being made to initiate local manufacturing of 500 watts wind-turbines under ToT from China and (5-10) kW wind- turbines under ToT from some European countries.
Keywords: Electrification of remote coastal areas, wind-energy, Balochistan, Sindh, Pakistan,
Citedy By: 
Nanotechnology and clean energy.
[PDF] 
Author: Hasibullah
Journal: Proceedings Conference on Nano-Science and Technology in Pakistan,Vol.0 (0), 2007--Pages 16-22
Abstract: Nanotechnology is rapidly passing through the transition phase of development with active participation of industrially advanced and several developing countries. The basic advantage associated with nanotechnology of enabling the scientists to manipulate the matter at individual atomic and molecular level, presents unlimited avenues for progress in a wide range of industrial and commercial areas like computers, medicine, construction material, energy and environment. Clean energy is the major requirement of sustainable socio-economic development linked to international commitments made by the world community in Rio, Kyoto and Johannesburg during the last few decades. Fossil fuel energy production cannot be abolished entirely but can be significantly diminished by replacements with renewable energy. Nanotechnology can play a substantial role in augmenting the potential of photovoltaic, hydrogen economy, cleaner industrial production and in nuclear power generation through the creation and use of better nanostructured materials. The promising future of nanotechnology can simply be envisaged by unprecedent amount of funding being allocated to its research and development throughout the world both in the private and public domain. It is the right moment for the developing countries to participate in the world efforts to draw benefit from this wonderful technology.
Keywords: Nanotechnology, clean energy, nuclear power
Citedy By: 
Potential market-size for renewables in the residential sector of Pakistan.
[PDF] 
Author: Athar, G. R. and Imtiaz, M.
Journal: Proceedings Renewable Energy Technologies and Sustainable Development,Vol.4 (0), 2007--Pages 97--108
Abstract: Renewable energy-sources can be used for meeting the energy-demand of various end uses, like water-pumping for irrigation, process-heat for industries and desalination for potable water-supplies. However, the residential sector has the largest potential for renewable energy usage among all sectors of the economy. At present, the residential sector of Pakistan consumes some 26 million Tonne of Oil Equivalent (c/TOE) energy: with more than 6 MTOE in the form of commercial energy (electricity, natural gas, kerosene, LPG and coal) and about 20 MTOE in the form of non-commercial energy (wood, dung and crop- residues). Applied Systems Analysis Group (ASAG) has carried out a study to project the energy demand of Pakistan up to the year 2024-25, using an energy-demand model MAED. This model uses simulation technique to evaluate the energy-demand implications of a scenario, describing the assumed evolution of demographic parameters, economic activities, lifestyle of the population and technological improvements. The demographic targets of the Population-Policy of Pakistan and economic targets of Government of Pakistan have been adopted as the basis of our reference scenario. The study shows that the energy-demand of the residential sector will increase by a factor of 1.7, compared to the base- year2001-2002. The residential sector will need 41.9 MTOE energy, of which: (i) 5.9 MTOE (72.5 Twh) in the form of electricity to fulfill the energy-needs for lighting, cooling and other electric appliances, (ii) 24.4 MTOE for cooking, (iii) 5.7 MTOE for water heating, and (iv) 5.8 MTOE for space heating. In all these end-uses, renewable energy can make a contribution depending on the cost of energy, convenience of use and reliability of supply. Although, the government is vigorously pursing a rural electrification program, a portion of residential sector, particularly in remote areas, will not be electrified even by 2024-25. The non-electrified houses will require 3 to 5 TIM of electricity, by the year 2024-25, which can be supplied through renewables, depending upon resource endowment of the area. Theoretically, all the thermal energy-needs of residential sector for cooking, water heating and space heating can be met by renewable. However, natural gas, followed by LPG and kerosene, according to availability of fuels and affordability by consumers, are preferred fuels for thermal uses. These commercial fuels can meet only 11 MTOE of thermal energy-requirements for cooking, water heating and space heating. The resultant shortfall of about 25 MTOE, by year 2024-25, will be a potential market for renewable-energy sources in addition to the renewable-electricity market of 3 to 5 Twh.
Keywords: renewable, residential areas, Pakistan.
Citedy By: 
Analysis of economics of investment in a wind-farm system.
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Author: Ali, F. and Nayyar, A. H.
Journal: Proceedings Renewable Energy Technologies and Sustainable Development,Vol.4 (0), 2007--Pages 7--20
Abstract: With the constant increase in the cost of generating electricity through conventional means, there is a growing need to look for other sources of energy. Renewable energy resources with their zero-emission features provide us with a good alternative. Of all the renewable energy resources, wind has proved to be the most promising one, chiefly due to its cost effectiveness and ability to provide grid-quality power. In Pakistan, the concept of using renewable energy for power generation is not new. However, the lack of support from the Government proved to be a major hurdle in developing Renewable Energy resources. Nevertheless, only recently the Government of Pakistan has taken concrete steps to develop renewable energy resources, one of which is a wind-mapping/charting program being carried out in the coastal areas of Balauchistan and Sindh. The wind-mapping program would eventually determine the wind-power potential of Pakistan and sizes of the wind-farm systems to be set up here. This study aims to estimate the cost of generating electricity using wind-energy and a suitable tariff-rate that may be set to attract foreign/local investment in this sector. This study also lays out policy recommendations that may help to attract investment to develop wind farm systems.
Keywords: Renewable energy , wind-farm, Economics, Pakistan
Citedy By: 
Challenges for the promotion of renewable-energy technologies in Pakistan.
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Author: Akhter, P.
Journal: Proceedings Renewable Energy Technologies and Sustainable Development,Vol.4 (0), 2007--Pages 143--150
Abstract: This paper emphasized on the importance and challenges for the promotion of SET in Pakistan. 75 \% of the energy is supplied by the fossil-fuels and 13 \% of energy needs are meet by biomass. The fossil-fuel for the use o f energy has harmful impacts or effect on the environment in many ways. The magnitude of Renewable-Energy Sources (RES) is enormous, and the energy gap can be filled by promoting these RES. Pakistan is an energy-deficient country and these RES call be utilized to meet the challenges of energy deficit. But these energy technologies are unable to compete with conventional energy sources in open-market and are facing number of challenges.
Keywords: Renewable-energy technologies, challenges, Pakistan.
Citedy By: 
Energy conservation for self-reliance.
[PDF] 
Author: Zubair, K. M.
Journal: Engineering Horizons,Vol.28 (204), 2005--Pages 24--25
Abstract: Economic growth and energy autarky are inexorably linked. It may be naive to think that we can rid ourselves from the deep economic malaise without access to reliable energy supply systems at affordable costs. Pakistan is endowed with unlimited natural resources. Yet despite fifty years of our existence the goal of energy self-dependence is far cry. We are heavily oil-dependent and spend more than two billion US dollars on oil importation annually. Oil constitutes about 43 percent of the total primary energy supplies and around 48 percent of the net energy consumption by source. Less than 20 percent of oil supplies are based on indigenous production. These reserves will not last even two years if we were to meet all our oil-requirements through indigenous production. Similarly, the demand of natural gas, the largest indigenously available source of commercial energy, far exceeds the supply and at the current production level, the balance recoverable gas reserves may dry up in a little less than 15 years. It indeed is a national malady that the abundantly available indigenous resources of hydro and coal energy remain largely untapped for one reason or the other.
Keywords: Energy conservation, self-reliance, Economic growth
Citedy By: 
Oil consumption trends and demand projections for Pakistan.
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Author: Uqaili, M. A., Memon, M. D. and Harijan, K.
Journal: Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology,Vol.24 (3), 2005--Pages 243--250
Abstract: Pakistan is an energy deficit county. Oil is the major commercial energy source in the country. Indigenous reserves of oil are limited and the country is heavily dependent on the import of oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy. With the growing economic development and with efforts to provide enhanced access to commercial energy, the oil demand in the country is expected to grow rapidly. This paper presents the oil consumption trends and future demand projections for Pakistan. The study indicates that the oil consumption in the country increased rapidly at an average growth rate of about 5.8 \% per annum during the last three decades. The major consumers of the oil in the country are transport, power and industrial sectors. The paper concludes that the oil demand in the county is projected to increase to about 32-47 MTOE (Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent) by the years 2018. Enhancement in the indigenous exploration and production of oil and substitution with other indigenous energy resources is essential for meeting the growing oil demand and increasing economic independence in the county.
Keywords: Oil consumption trends, oil demand, commercial energy source , Pakistan
Citedy By: 
Potential, utilization and demand projections of coal in Pakistan.
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Author: Uqaili,M.A., Memon, M. D. and Harijan, K.
Journal: Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology,Vol.24 (1), 2005--Pages 63--70
Abstract: Energy is the most important input for economic development and national prosperity. Pakistan is an energy deficient country. Large portion of the population has no access to commercial energy. The commercial energy is dominated by gas followed by oil, hydel and nuclear energy. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country is heavily dependent on the import of oil. With the economic development and with efforts to provide enhanced access to commercial energy, the energy demand in the country in expected to grow rapidly. This requires development of indigenous energy sources and coal is one of the viable options. This paper presents the potential, utilization and demand projections of coal in Pakistan. The study indicates that the resource potential of coals is about 185 billion tones in the country. The share of coal in primary commercial energy consumption at the time of country's independence was about 60 \% but with the introduction of oil as cleaner and conveniently transportable fuel and the discovery of natural gas reserves, the utilization has gradually reduced. Currently, the coal contributes about 5.4 \% of the total primary commercial energy consumption in the country. The paper concludes that the coal demand in the country will increase to about 7-10 MTOE (Million tones of Oil Equivalent) by the year 2018. Development of indigenous coal with advanced technologies is essential for meeting the growing energy demand in Pakistan.
Keywords: coal demand, Coal utilization, economic development Pakistan
Citedy By: 
Energy conservation some aspects.
[PDF] 
Author: Rizvi, I.
Journal: Engineering horizons,Vol.18 (203), 2005--Pages 15--19
Abstract: The pressure to reduce investment and operating costs is a constant factor for the application of new and challenging technologies, the present crisis of Sugar industry has further necessitated the adoption of policies for reduction in production cost. Efficient utilization of energy can contribute in substantial reduction of production cost. This article describes the procedures that can be adopted in this regard right from cane yard up to bagging of sugar .Impact of good guilty cane, improvement in calorific value of bagasse, energy conservation in boiling house, efficient utilization of electricity and steam are briefly discussed.
Keywords: Energy conservation, utilization of electricity,
Citedy By: 
Analysis and design of WAPDA distribution system to minimize interruptions in power supply to U.E.T.
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Author: Qureshi, S. A., Kamran, M., Ali, A. and Raza, M. T.
Journal: Journal of the Institution of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Pakistan,Vol.46 (1), 2005--Pages 36--41
Abstract: Due to unscheduled power shut downs and momentary tripping, working of University of Engineering \& Technology (U.E.T) Lahore Pakistan, is suffering badly. UET has produced eminent Engineers who have left their mark in various engineering disciplines, at international level and has the unique honor of being one of the earlier engineering institutions in the sub continent. The UET is known worldwide and dignitaries visit this place of learning through out the year. The university has more than eighteen independent departments covering all the discipline in under graduate and postgraduates levels. Computers are installed in almost all the departments, particularly after the application of information technology in almost all the field of studies. Any interruption in the supply of electricity causes unacceptable inconvenience which is loss of man hours and bad name to this highly respected place of learning. Hence, it has become the need of present time for analyzing the existing distribution system of UET and suggests the remedial measure to design a reliable supply system. Significant big industrial consumers has switched over to self generation. Along with other reasons, one of the major reasons, for their switching away from WAPDA system is the unscheduled power interruptions and momentary tripping. As a result today WAPDA is facing a surplus power, whereas surplus power is directly contributing to high energy cost (effecting the Pakistan economy negatively) and WAPDA is in financial deficits of billion of rupees
Keywords: power shut downs, Electricity distribution system
Citedy By: 
Nuclear knowledge management and preservation: a case study of Pakistan.
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Author: Khan, S. Riaz
Journal: Nucleus,Vol.42 (42737), 2005--Pages 145--149
Abstract: The nuclear knowledge management (NKM) has become a major growing issue in the IAEA's Agenda. The use of nuclear technology in variety of application related to sustainable development, demands the preservation of nuclear knowledge. In developing countries the use of nuclear technology is much smaller compared to developed world. The nuclear knowledge management situation in the developing countries are not understood clearly. In case of Pakistan, the nuclear technology is being used in many areas of human need. These include energy, agricultural, medical and industrial applications. Also by the end of third decade, the Authorities have set target to go for generating electricity through nuclear technology near to 800 MW. NKM is also vital for the new generation to understand the technology from elder`s experiences and through proper knowledge preservation. This could only be done by adopting a proper nuclear knowledge management strategy.
Keywords: Nuclear knowledge management, preservation, Pakistan.
Citedy By: 
Global irradiation on horizontal surface at Hyderabad, Pakistan.
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Author: Kalhoro, A. N. and Abro, A. K.
Journal: Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology,Vol.24 (1), 2005--Pages 45--52
Abstract: The measurement of global irradiation on horizontal surface at PCSIR (Pakistan Council of Scientific \& Industrial Research) Laboratories, Hyderabad, Pakistan, for the period of January-June,|2003 is presented in this paper. During six months the total global irradiation received on horizontal surface at Hyderabad Laboratories is 1. 080238MW-h-m2. The daily irradiation data (Watt-h/Sq.m) has been collected on continuous basis by means of EPLAB Pyranometer and EPLAB Electronic Integrator provided with DIGITEC printer system. HP X-Y recorder (potentiometer) is also connected for continuous data recording of solar intensity (mV). The weather effect over the radiation income was observed regularly and proportion of sunny, cloudy, partly cloudy and dusty days is plotted. Monthly mean daily irradiation bifurcated for sunny and cloudy days are also shown separately. To give an overview of sky conditions, the monthly clearness index is calculated. The highest value of average irradiation per day was recorded in June (7.15 kW/m2) and minimum recorded in January (4.11 kW/m2). The summer season, although rich in radiation with long sunshine duration, brings dust storms along with many partly cloudy or cloudy days, mostly in the month of May and likely in June as well. This could be an additional barrier for solar energy applications especially in desert areas; therefore the study was made for evaluating the effect of dust on the radiation flux. The purpose of the study is the development of rural life in Pakistan such that the inhabitants of rural areas may need not to wait for the connection to national grid. This study will help in improving the efficiency of solar thermal devices, (currently fabricated on theoretical basis at the laboratories), according to experimental data.
Keywords: Global irradiation, efficiency of solar thermal devices, Hyderabad, Pakistan
Citedy By: 
Wind and Solar energy in Quetta (Pakistan).
[PDF] 
Author: Ilyas, S. Z., Nasir, S. M. and Badshah, T.
Journal: Research Journal University of Balochistan,Vol.3 (1), 2005--Pages 178--180
Abstract: Hourly wind speed data at Quetta (meteorological observations in Pakistan) have been analysed to determine monthly and annual wind power and these are compared with the monthly mean solar radiation energies for the period 1990-1994. The monthly average wind speed range from 2.5 to 4.4 m/sec while the solar radiation varies from 3.6 to 7.65 k Wh/m2.
Keywords: Wind Energy, Solar energy, Quetta, Pakistan
Citedy By: 
Biosynthesis of Methanol from CO2 and CHs by Methanotrophic Bacteria.
[PDF] 
Author: Zhu, L., Xin, J., Cui, J., Niu, J., Hua, S., Chun-Gu, X. and Li, S.
Journal: Biotechnology,Vol.3 (1), 2004--Pages 67--71
Abstract: Methanotrophs can oxidize methane to carbon dioxide through sequential reactions catalyzed by a series of enzymes including methane monooxygenase, methanol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase. Reducing carbon dioxide to methanol is an opposite reaction of methanol oxidation, which requires a considerable amount of energy. So far there are no known organisms whose normal biological role is reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol. In this paper, we report that bioconversion of carbon dioxide to methanol was successfully ,achieved using resting cells of methanotrophic bacteria of Methylosinus trichosporium IMV 3011 as biocatalysts. Extracellular methanol is energy­intensive and requires reducing equivalent to push the reaction along energy laws. For long-term maintenance of methanol synthesis, methane was selected as a substrate for regeneration of reducing equivalent. By alternate reaction and regeneration, the results show that resting cell of M .trichosporium IMV 3011 can be used for many times to catalyze the reduction of carbon dioxide, in which the origin of the reducing equivalent is methane. It is possible to theoretically deduce that the overall reaction for methanol synthesis can be completed by biocatalysis using greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane) as raw materials without adding hydrogen. This new route should be environmentally bengin and a selective process operating at room temperature and normal pressure. Also, it is theoretically possible that the overall reaction can produce methanol without adding to the greenhouse effect
Keywords: Methanol Biosynrhesis, Methanotrophs, methanol oxidation, carbon dioxide bioconversion,
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Environment and solar energy technologies.
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Author: Zaidi, Z. I.
Journal: Nucleus,Vol.40 (42739), 2004--Pages 29--35
Abstract: Technologies for fossil fuel extraction, transportation, processing and their use have harmful impact on the environment which cause direct and indirect negative impact on human health, animals, crops and structure etc. The end use of all the fossil fuels is combustion irrespective of the final purpose i.e. heating, electricity production and motive power for transportation. The main constituent of fossil fuels are carbon and hydrogen but some other ingredients, which are originally in the fuel e.g. sulphur or are added during refining e.g. lead, alcohol etc. Combustion of the fossil fuel produce various gases (COx, SOx NOx, CH,), soot, ash, droplets of tar and other organic compounds, which are all released into the atmosphere. High rate of population growth and industrialization in the developing countries are causing unsustainable use of forest resources and fossil fuels, hence, are serious hurdles in environmental improvement. The situation in Pakistan is even worse as it has very limited fossil fuels and 40 \% of its commercial energy requirement are to be imported every year. Renewable energy technologies on the other hand, can play a vital role in improving the environmental condition globally. Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET) is working in the field of renewable energy technologies. The Council has developed solar modules and solar thermal devices including solar cookers, solar dryers, solar stills and solar water heaters. The paper describes these devices and contribution they can make toward the improvement of environment.
Keywords: Environment, solar energy technologies, fossil fuel extraction
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The effect of building regulations and energy conservation measures in domestic sector on national energy consumption.
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Author: Samo, S. R., Akhund, M. A. and Brohi, K. M.
Journal: Quaid-e-Awam University Research Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology,Vol.5 (1), 2004--Pages 65--72
Abstract: In England, housing accounts for some 30 \% of total fuel consumption and a similar proportion of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emission [1]. A study has been conducted to analyse the effect of the legislations \& UK thermal building regulations on national energy consumption in housing. This research paper presents data on the percentage of dwelling stock, the energy consumption, energy cost and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in different types of dwellings, which comply different building regulations from 1965 to 1995. It was found that 66 \% of the dwelling stock, which comply the building Regulations before 1965, consumes 73 \% of total energy used in housing. This dwelling stock is also responsible for 75 \% of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Whereas currently only 4 \% of the dwelling stock complies the latest building regulations 1995 which consume 2 \% of energy \& produce a similar percentage of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in housing. Since the large portion of the dwelling stock is comprised of old dwellings, therefore the greatest potential for energy conservation measures can be found in improving these dwellings instead of constructing new dwellings.
Keywords: building regulations, energy conservation, energy consumption.
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Cost effective solar water heater for energy resource management in developing countries.
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Author: Qureshi, M. A., Moghal, M. R., Hassan, K. M. and Qureshi, S. A.
Journal: New Horizons: Journal of the Institution of Electrical \& Electronics Engineers Pakistan,Vol.44 (1), 2004--Pages 114--120
Abstract: As solar water heater is not a new idea but our basic approach is to reduce cost of the heater, used for domestic purpose, so that utilization of solar energy can reach to a common man. Now-a-days every nation is facing energy crisis and most of the engineers and scientists have devoted themselves to overcome energy problems and to conserve energy by designing machinery which consumes less fuel for specific purposes. A solar water heater is a long-term investment that will save you money and energy for many years. Like other renewable energy systems, solar water heaters minimize the environmental effects of enjoying a comfortable, modern lifestyle. In addition, they provide insurance against energy price increases, help reduce our dependence on foreign oil, and are investments in everyone's future. Solar water heaters do not pollute. By investing in one, you will be avoiding carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and the other air pollution and wastes created when your utility generates power or you burn fuel to heat your household water. When a solar water heater replaces an electric water heater, the electricity displaced over 20 years represents more than 50 tons of avoided carbon dioxide emissions alone. Carbon dioxide traps heat in the upper atmosphere.
Keywords: solar water heater, energy resource management, developing countries. Cost effective
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The multi-fuel solution for power plants.
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Author: Pathan, M. I., Shaikh, N. A. and Nawaz, Z.
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences,Vol.23 (1), 2004--Pages 99--106
Abstract: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology offers an attractive alternative of conventional pulverized coal and natural gas power generation in terms of cycle efficiency \& emission compliance. But while operating cost is low, the high capital cost of IGCC has threatened its competitiveness. The improvement in turbine, gas clean up and other design addresses the challenge of high capital cost. The competitive nature of power generation industry could threaten the IGCC Technology. For a developing country like Pakistan, it is obligatory that all energy options must be pursued vigorously including coal utilization, which is considered to be one of the major options for the future use.
Keywords: fuel solution, power plants, natural gas power generation, conventional pulverized coal
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Estimation of the potential of biogas production form livestock residue in Pakistan.
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Author: Muhammad, K., Uqaili, M. A. and Meon, M. D.
Journal: Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology,Vol.23 (4), 2004--Pages 257--266
Abstract: Biomass is the most significant energy source in Pakistan, which accounts for about 37 \% of its total primary energy supply. About 70 \% of country's population lives in rural areas and are linked with agriculture. The people in these areas meet about 95 \% of their domestic fuel needs by burning bio fuels such as wood, animal dung, crop residue, charcoal, etc. They also use kerosene oil as fuel for cooking and lighting. The present methods of biomass specially livestock residue utilization are energy inefficient and require government intervention for the introduction of efficient conversion systems. In the present study, the potential of biogas production from livestock residue in Pakistan is estimated and their possible substitution with conventional fuels specially in rural areas is looked upon. The study concludes that the potential of biogas production from livestock residue in Pakistan of the order of 8.8-17.2 thousand million m3 year. Biogas alone could supply cooking, heating and lighting energy requirements of about 65 \% of the country's rural population. Promotion of biogas technology seems to be one of the best options to offset the fossil fuel and wood consumption especially in rural areas and to facilitate recycling of agro-animal residues as a bio fertilizer. Moreover, being clean and renewable, it would also contribute towards environment protection, sustenance of ecosystem and conservation of biodiversity. All efforts should be made to make optimum use of it. An action-oriented national energy policy needs to be initiated for biogas production from livestock residue and its effective utilization.
Keywords: biogas production, livestock residue, Pakistan
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Thermal insulation of roof using clay tiles.
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Author: Memon, M., Ansari, A. A. and Memon, A. B.
Journal: Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology,Vol.23 (3), 2004--Pages 183--190
Abstract: Thermal insulation of buildings is essential for effective temperature control for the minimum possible consumption of energy that may be used to keep the atmosphere warm in winter through heating, and cool in summer through air conditioning. Systematic studies have been carried out in western countries to minimize the use of energy for heating with the help of thermal insulation. However, this is equally important for tropical countries like ours as well. Because direct exposure of roof of a building to sunshine during hot days of summer cause lot of discomfort inside the rooms due to conduction of heat from the top. Therefore, thermal insulation of roof or ceiling is essential so that the inside temperature may not be adversely affected drastically. This is particularly important in the plains of Pakistan where the temperature soars to 52°C. Therefore, attempt has been made to check the effectiveness of clay tiles as roof thermal insulation which is inexpensive and locally available in plenty. A systematic study has been carried out, the results of which are presented in this paper. The results are encouraging and a temperature reduction of up to 15°C has been achieved. On the day when out said temperature was 47°C the inside temperature was only 32°C.
Keywords: roof insulation, clay tiles, energy consumption, Pakistan
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Stress corrosion cracking prevention using solar electricity.
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Author: Harijan, K., Uqaili, M. A. and Mirani, M.
Journal: Quaid-e-Awam University Research Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology,Vol.5 (1), 2004--Pages 27--36
Abstract: Metallic structures exposed to soil and water naturally experience corrosion due to electrolytic action. These structures are also subjected to sustained tensile stresses. The combined effects of corrosion and stress results in stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Removal of either of these i.e. stress or corrosion prevents SCC. The cathodic protection (CP) prevents corrosion, and hence prevents stress corrosion cracking. Solar photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity can be best external power source for CP systems especially in remote areas. This paper presents CP system using solar PV generated electricity as an external power source for prevention of SCC of metallic structures. The paper also compares CP systems using solar electricity with those of CP systems using conventional electricity. The paper concludes that a solar electricity power system provides a reliable solution for powering CP stations especially in remote areas, enables the placing of CP units in any location, and thus ensures optimal current distribution for the exact protection requirements. The paper also concludes that solar electricity CP systems are well suited for SCC protection of metallic structures especially in remote areas of an energy deficit country like Pakistan.
Keywords: Stress corrosion, solar electricity, Metallic structures
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Energy options for Pakistan in a geological perspective.
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Author: Gauhar, S. H.
Journal: Science Vision,Vol.8 (42798), 2004--Pages 73--75
Abstract: The modern industrial civilization which has principally developed during the last century differs from all previous civilizations in the amounts of energy it uses in sustaining its rate of growth. The most critical aspect of the present-day development scenario is that the rate of increase in energy-consumption is not simply arithmetical, it is geometrical and increases exponentially due to population increase coupled with a rising standard of living. For a country like Pakistan, dependable and affordable supply of energy is of critical importance in order to industrialize the economy and to alleviate poverty. Although the energy related problems of Pakistan are formidable, but fortunately they are not entirely insurmountable, and geology holds the key to provide hope, options and solutions. The paper discusses the available energy-options for Pakistan in a geological context, and recommends measures which can hopefully ensure a better energy scene and thus a brighter future for Pakistan.
Keywords: Energy options, Pakistan,
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Production of Biogas at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures.
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Author: Ali, I., Ali, M. M., Basit, M. A. and Khan, A. R.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research,Vol.47 (1), 2004--Pages 5--8
Abstract: Experiments were accomplished for the production of biogas using.a slurry comprising 50 \% fresh buffalo dung and 50 \% water at ambient and elevated temperatures. After 2 weeks, observations for the release of biogas were noted. It was observed that with the increase of temperature \# jhe rate of generation of gas was enhanced. A slurry containing 200g fresh buffalo dung and 200g water produced 121.5 ml gas/day at an average ambient temperature of 35°C, whereas 45°C, 50°C, 55°C and 60°C, the average rates of gas generation were noted as 152.0, 221.5, 292.0 and.354.0 ml/day. The volume of 232.5 ml of biogas in excess was produced with the temperature difference of 25°C (60°C - 35°C). The input of 42000 joules of energy for heating 400 ml of slurry produced gas of 5196.375 joules. It shows that there is a loss of 36803.625 joules of heat which makes the process, thermally, not viable. Hence, ambient temperature is` recommended for the production of biogas for domestic plants.
Keywords: biogass production, mesophilic temperatures, thermophilic temperatures, buffalo dung
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Energy-conserving stoves review.
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Author: Ali, I.
Journal: Science, Technology and Development,Vol.23 (1), 2004--Pages 21--32
Abstract: Stoves/burners are combustion appliances widely used for extraction/conversion of the energy of fuels for thermal purposes, heating, etc. Various types of stoves/burners have been discussed here for burning fossil/non-fossil fuels solid, liquid and gases. Energy-conserving models of stoves/burners have been presented here, with special reference to their thermal efficiencies. The information conveyed is important and useful for energy-saving and designing of thermally efficient combustion appliances. Accidents caused by the bursting of stoves have also been discussed. Several improved designs of household cooking-stoves have been evaluated and are discussed in this paper along with relevant safety measures.
Keywords: Energy-conserving stoves, fossil/non-fossil fuels, combustion appliances
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Wind energy potential & its characteristic distribution for power generation at Hyderabad Sindh,
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Author: Ahmed, M. A. and Ahmad, F.
Journal: Karachi University Journal of Science,Vol.23 (42737), 2004--Pages 21--26
Abstract: Wind characteristics and wind energy potential for Hyderabad Sindh are presented. These were evaluated using mean monthly wind speed data at a height of 10 m above the ground for the year 1995-1999. The minimum \& maximum wind speeds are 3.2 m/sec in December and 9.0 m/sec in July respectively. Accordingly the maximum mean power output exploitable from the wind at this site is 2.7 K W, using 5 m dia wind turbine blade. The annual mean energy density available in the wind was found to be 1531 K W h m-1. Thus the potential year for a round wind energy utilization at Hyderabad, Sindh is good enough to run a tube well for agriculture use \& small scale power generation. The Weibull parameters c and k for Hyderabad was also estimated to see the pattern of wind for its efficient use. It has been observed that the prospect of wind energy utilization is fairly bright and feasible for this area.
Keywords: Wind energy potential, power generation, Hyderabad, Pakistan.
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Study of trends and behaviour of climatological parameters at Karachi, Pakistan, in solar and wind energy utilization perspective.
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Author: Ahmad, F., Qidwai, A. A. and Ulfat, I.
Journal: Karachi University Journal of Science,Vol.31 (42737), 2004--Pages 1--9
Abstract: The climatological parameters of Karachi (Lat. 24o.54'N, Long: 67o.08'E) are studied in detail to investigate the variation and climatic transition, if any. Conventional climatic indicators such as sunshine hours, maximum and minimum temperature, cloud covers, relative humidity, wind velocity, sea-level pressure, rainfall were examined for a period of 10 years. The analysis showed remarkable consistency, regular repeated pattern and identical trend over the years, for all the parameters, depicting a stable climate for Karachi. The temperature and sunshine hours show a maxima in the months of May and November and shows a dip in the Monsoon months (July to September), whereas the parameters such as cloud cover, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed show maxima in the Monsoon months. A fine correlation is also observed among temperature, cloudiness, wind and sunshine data when analyzed in solar and wind energy utilization perspective. From the clear sky conditions almost throughout the year and analysis of long-term data, it is evident that the prospects of solar and wind energy utilization are bright in Karachi.
Keywords: Soalr energy. Wind energy, climatological parameters, Pakistan,
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Design of an impulse current tester for energy maters.
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Author: Sheikh, N. M. and Nasir-Ud-Din, E.
Journal: New Horizons: Journal of the Institution of Electrical \& Electronics Engineers Pakistan,Vol.41 (1), 2003--Pages 42990
Abstract: Design for generating and recording of a pulse of current up to 4000A for a duration of around one msec is discussed. A PC is used for interfacing and storage. The results achieved are compared with the theoretical analysis.
Keywords: Pulse recording, theoretical analysis
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Use of triangulation method on solar radiations.
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Author: Raza, S. M. and Kamal, L.
Journal: Research Journal University of Balochistan,Vol.1 (1), 2003--Pages 75--84
Abstract: For countrywide estimation of solar energy radiation in Pakistan, the Triangulation method in relationships between monthly mean daily solar radiation and monthly mean sunshine hours per day is used by the Authors to generate values of solar radiation, for the stations where only the sunshine house data is available.
Keywords: triangulation method, solar radiation, Pakistan.
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Environmental friendly initiatives in oil & gas sector of Pakistan.
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Author: Raza, H. A.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Environmental Science,Vol.1 (1), 2003--Pages 82--86
Abstract: Pakistan energy mix is highly dependent on oil and gas. Out of the present annual energy demand of 43 million tons of oil equivalent, the share of oil is 43 \% , natural gas 45 \% , hydro-electricity 11 \% and of coal 5 \% (Pakistan Energy Yearbook 2000). This energy mix with substantive share of natural gas and hydro-electricity can be highly environment friendly.
Keywords: Oil a7 gas sector, Pakistan, Environment
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A note on wind energy in Quetta Valley, Baluchistan.
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Author: Raja, I. A. and Abidi, S. B. H.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Environmental Science,Vol.1 (1), 2003--Pages 99--102
Abstract: The wind energy potential in Quetta Valley is investigated, using the wind data from two observatories and based on three observations in a day i.e. morning, noon and evening. The evaluation procedure included a review of the wind condition in the valley and the estimation of energy that can be extracted from it. The study revealed that the valley experiences good wind speed. The annual mean wind speed lies around 2.6 ms-1, while the maximum speed occurs in the evening.
Keywords: wind energy, Quetta, Pakistan
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Thermoelectric power of CdTe thin films prepared by vacuum evaporation method.
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Author: Rahman, M. M., Khan, M. K. R., Zaman, Y., Hakim, M. O. and Choudhury, M. G. M.
Journal: Nucleus,Vol.39 (42798), 2003--Pages 137--143
Abstract: Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) thin films of different thickness have been prepared by vacuum evaporation method on glass substrate at room temperature. X-ray diffraction and thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements were carried out on these films. The XRD pattern shows that as-deposited films are amorphous in character. Thermoelectric power (TEP) measured from room temperature to 450 k and it shows positive value at room temperature and decreases with the increase of temperature upto T \~ 314 K, above which it remains almost constant. At higher temperature T \textgreater 410 K, TEP becomes negative. These experimental results reveal that there are two types of carriers present in as-deposited films. In low temperature region, dominant carriers are holes and at high temperature (T \textgreater 410 K) it is electron. The activation energy Eo and temperature coefficient of activation energy $\gamma$ have been calculated from TEP data. Eo and $\gamma$ varies with film thickness and their values range from 0.52 to 1.21 eV and 7.05 ×10-4 to 18.4 × 10-4 eVK-1 respectively. It is found that TEP does not vary systematically with film thickness, which is one of the characteristics of amorphous materials reported in the next.
Keywords: Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) films, Thermoelectric power, vacuum evaporation method
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Control system for VSI static reactive power compensators.
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Author: Qureshi, S. A. and And Sanaullah, R. C. H.
Journal: New Horizons: Journal of the Institution of Electrical & Electronics Engineers Pakistan,Vol.42 (1), 2003--Pages 74--77
Abstract: Rising energy costs, increased transmission distances and use of large generating machines are resulting in increased demands for reliable and more economic operation of transmission and distribution systems. However, even in the most efficient power transmission and distribution system, some transmission losses are inevitable. To overcome losses in weak system where minor losses are considerable reactive power compensation is a well established technology. By reducing the negative impact of reactive power in high voltage AC networks, the capacity of transmission systems can be dramatically increased. For this VSI-SVC (Voltage Source Inverter Static Reactive Power Compensator) is the best solution. This paper deals in design of control system for a VSI-SVC by considering the requirements of the AC system and the requirements of the SVC itself. These are combined to produce a schematic block diagram describing the control system of the SVC connected to a simple power system [I].
Keywords: static reactive power compensators, power transmission, design, control
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A novel wind energy conversion scheme WECS for optimum load sharing.
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Author: Azzam-Ul-Asrar and Amjadullah, M. Ayaz
Journal: Journal of Science and Technology,Vol.27 (1), 2003--Pages 25--29
Abstract: In the field of Wind Energy very little work has been carried out in designing a power conversion system but a lot of research has been done in designing wind turbines and generators. In this paper, a novel wind-energy conversion scheme [WECS] for optimum load sharing is proposed and experimentally verified through a small-scale model developed in the laboratory. The idea of lumping together the output of wind generators in the wind farm is proposed. Moreover, it is demonstrated that a single independent generator, against a group of wind generators, whose outputs are lumped together as a single units, is able to optimally share the load power in proportion with its generated voltage.
Keywords: wind energy conversion, power conversion system, wind turbines, generators
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