Energy Articles

Energy Articles
The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Pakistan
Author: A Aqeel, MS Butt
Journal: Asia-Pacific Development Journal,Vol.8 (2), 2011--Pages 
Abstract: This paper investigates the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth and energy consumption and employment in Pakistan. By applying techniques of co-integration and Hsiao's version of Granger causality, the results infer that economic growth causes total energy consumption. Economic growth also leads to growth in petroleum consumption, while on the other hand, neither economic growth nor gas consumption affect each other. However, in the power sector it has been found that electricity consumption leads to economic growth without feedback. The implications of the study are that energy conservation policy regarding petroleum consumption would not lead to any side-effects on economic growth in Pakistan. However, an energy growth policy in the case of gas and electricity consumption should be adopted in such a way that it stimulates growth in the economy and thus expands employment opportunities
Keywords:  Pakistan, energy, electricity consumption
Citedy By: 414
Sustainable energy options for Pakistan
Author: M. Asif
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.13 (4), 2009--Pages 903-909
Abstract: With the advent of the year 2008, Pakistan faces a gap of 4500MW between the demand and supply of electricity, registering a shortfall of 40%. The article provides an overview of the key dimensions of the crisis, ie growing gap between demand and supply, diminishing indigenous oil and gas reserves, rising energy cost and security concerns. It also explores hydropower, solar energy, biomass and wind power as sustainable energy options for the country. In has been found that the total estimated hydropower potential is more than 42 GW out of which only 6.5 GW has been tapped so far. In terms of available solar energy Pakistan is amongst the richest countries in the world, having an annual global irradiance value of 1900–2200 kWh/m2 . Despite that fact that the biomass plays an important role in the primary energy mix by contributing to 36% of the total supplies, it has not managed to break into the commercial energy market. Wind power, also been identified as a potential source of energy, is yet to take off
Keywords: potential source of energy, primary energy mix
Citedy By: 128
Energy consumption, real income and temporal causality: results from a multi-country study based on cointegration and error-correction modelling techniques
Author: AMM Masih
Journal: Journal: Energy Economics,Vol.18 (3), 1996--Pages 165-183
Abstract: Unlike previous studies on the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, this paper illustrates how the finding of cointegration (i.e. long-term equilibrium relationship) between these variables, may be used in testing Granger causality. Based on the most recent Johansen's multivariate cointegration tests preceded by various unit root or non-stationarity tests, we test for cointegration between total energy consumption and real income of six Asian economies: India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and the Philippines. Non-rejection of cointegration between variables rules out Granger non-causality and imples at least one way of Granger-causality, either unidirectional or bidirectionial. Secondly, by using a dynamic vector error-correction model, we then analyse the direction of Granger-causation and hence the within-sample Granger-exogeneity or endogeneity of each of the variables. Thirdly, the relative strength of the causality is gauged (through the dynamic variance decomposition technique) by decomposing the total impact of an unanticipated shock to each of the variables beyond the sample period, into proportions attributable to shocks in the other variables including its own, in the bivariate system. Results based on these tools of methodology indicate that while all pair-wise relationships shared common univariate integrational properties, only relationships for three countries (India, Pakistan and Indonesia) were cointegrated. For these countries, temporal causality results were mixed with unidirectional causality from energy to income for India, exactly the reverse for Indonesia, and mutual causality for Pakistan. The VDCs were not inconsistent with these results and provided us with an additional insight as to the relatively more *Corresponding author. Phone: (616) 268 8091; Fax: (616) 268 8450; Telex: ADFADM AA 62030; E-Mail: 0140-9883/96/$15.00 © 1996 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights